Soviet Montage Cinema

Soviet Montage Cinema

Soviet montage is an approach to understand and create a cinema that relies on editing or montage. The Soviet montage movement began nearly in 1924. During the years of the Russian Revolution, the filmmaker has been found themselves short for supplying of cinema. At that time what they decide was using pieces of films from prior projects and presented them in a  different way with a different meaning.

Lev Kuleshov was the pioneer in the Filmmaking theory. Lev Kuleshov realized that an actor’s expression wasn’t enough to convey a specific idea, therefore juxtaposed images must. His theory is also known as the “Kuleshov Experiment”. In his experiment audience saw the close of a man followed by Soup Bowl, Casket and an attractive woman. When the audience saw that they assumed the man, the soup bowl, again saw that man then figure out he must be hungry and want soup. Now when the soup bowl replaced by casket they think he must be sad as a child died. Eventually, casket replaced by an attractive woman and people thinks he must want something desirable. If you see that you will notice the face of the man was the same, it means one footage has been used for different elements and it looked exactly the same as we perceived it.

Kuleshov Experiment

Einsenstine was the biggest theorist of the Montage. He considered the montage a nerve of cinema. He wrote a book called Film Forms, where he emphasized how the duration and movement of a shot, and emotions can affect the audience. Filmmakers like Dziga Vertov and Sergei Eisenstein did not believe in the continuity system of shots in cinema they thought it make reality fake. They believed in the dialectic system which was about the conflict between the ideas. Eisenstein wanted to move the audience’s emotions and inspire them to get behind the revolution.


Montage is a technique of film editing in which short shots are sequenced to condense space, time and information. This term has been used in a different context such as in French the term montage use in cinema simply in terms of editing.  Montage originally originated from Russia by Eisenstein where it was used to create symbolism. Later this technique was used by Britain and American studios to show the “montage sequence” to suggest the passage of time. The montage sequence often used the short shots with optical effects like fade, dissolve, slit screen, double exposure. This technique has been changed the way of making films with the means of editing techniques.

Soviet montage was not even famous for illustrating philosophical point but it had the ability to manipulate how a viewer perceives a certain event. In Eisenstein’s film Battelship Potemkin (1925), there is a sequence which is known as Odessa Steps. In this scene protesting citizens are moving down by Tsarist troops. This sequence used the whole montage technique where he used the graphics, short shots of real incidence, dramatic cuts from wide shots to extream close-up shots. This film was a highly respected film in the year 1958 and voted to be the best ever film made by Sergei Eisenstein.

Battleship Potemkin 1925

Battleship Potemkin is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. It presents a dramatized version of the mutiny that occurred in 1905 when the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin rebelled against their officers.

To understand the meaning more clear you can watch the movie. Link below.

Types of Montage:-

Sergei Eisenstein categorized montage into five different types:-

  1. Metric montage – this is simple editing where long shorts get shorten without losing the scene’s originality and emotions attached to that scene. This type of os scene generally uses suspense and tension science.
  2. Rhythmic montage – Each shot’s length derives from the specifics of the piece and from its planned length according to the structure of the sequence.
  3. Tonal montage- this is a combination of both the metric and rhythmic montage that highlights the emotional themes that may present at a particular time. This technique is more subjective. In this, you can use videos and images.  
  4. Overton montage- it is a practice of cutting various tones and overtones of the shot. It is an abstract than tonal. It is the simultaneous use of the above three which forms over tonal montage and creates conflict between the shots.
  5. Intellectual montage- this one is the combination of the above four montages. It does not even create conflict between the shots but also arise complex emotion to the audience that makes the film more realistic and make people more plight of the character on the screen. Einstein’s movie Strike (1925) is an example to understand this.

 Four primary directors who used soviet montage in their cinema

  1. Sergei Eisenstein
  2. Lev Kuleshov
  3. Dziga Vertov
  4. Vsevolod Pudovkin

Classic Movies of the Time

  1. Strike, 1925
  2. Battleship Potemkin, 1925
  3. The end of St. Petersburg, 1927
  4. October, 1928
  5. Citizen Kane, 1941
  6. Casablanca, 1942

For further readings you may check out these links mention below:-

social Loafing Theory

Social Loafing theory

This theory is experienced by William Latane. In social psychology, it is the phenomenon of a person exerting fewer efforts to achieve a goal when they work in a group that they work alone. In other words, our level of efforts consistently decreases when we work in groups and we do not work hard as we do individually. This has also been seen as one of the main reason behind less production while work done in groups as compared to individuals.

Social loafing: one denies working hard or hiding from others in a group so that he cannot do much.

Rope pulling experiment:-

3D human pulling a rope

The research of Social Loafing began with Rope pulling experiment in 1913 by Max Ringelmann, who found that members of a group tended to exert less effort in pulling a rope than did individual alone.

What does study say:-

  • In this study researcher found, when he asked participants or group of people to pull a rope they did not pull it as hard collectively as they did it individually or alone. He did not define the reason behind this experiment, was it the reason for individual effort or less effort done by a group.
  • In 1974 few researchers named James Graves, Alan Ingham, and colleagues replicated Ringelmann’s experiment using two types of group: one is real group participants in various sizes and another one is Pseudo-groups with only one real participant where only one pretended to pull the rope.
  • In this further study, Ingham proved that communication could not be the only reason behind loosing the game but lack of motivation was also the reason behind that.

Consequences of social loafing:

  • Negative consequences- it can be negative for both the groups or individual. Group dynamic can be affected if few individuals seem less effective in a group.
  • It can break the groups- lack of unity can break the group. There is a need to give equal efforts. For example, if there is a group of 10 people out of which 4 are working and others are doing nothing well so it definitely creates an imbalance in the group.

Cause of social loafing:

  • Group size- larger the group more chances will occur of social loafing.
  • Low level of motivation – an absence of motivation will increase the poor group participation. People avoid participating in group task because of many reasons. For example, a group task gives to an office Few members may not like to participate in the group as they like to work alone in that case motivation factor works. As a leader or a manager, one needs to motivate their group people so that they can give their best and achieve their target.
  • Equity theory: Unequal distribution of work:

Prevention :

  • Set group goals
  • Increase inter group competition
  • Distribute group rewards based on individual members contribution.




Edward Bernays

Edward Bernayspropaganda

Edward Bernays was known as the Father of PR. He was an Australian- American born on November 22nd, 1892- March 9th, 1995. He was a pioneer in the field of Public Relation and Propaganda. He did his graduation from Cornell. After his graduation, he wrote for The National Nurseryman Journal. He also worked for Louis Dreyfus & company reading grain cables. Bernays also worked as a creative press agent. He promoted the stage play called Daddy Long Legs by connected it with the cause of the charity of orphans. He was publicity director of The New York World’s Fair.

Edward vision was about a utopian ( it is an imagined society that possessed desirable and perfect qualities of life for its citizens.) society in which people libidinal energies can be challenged by elite and for economic benefit. He introduces the term ‘Masses’ who affected by their outside conscious understanding. Masses can be manipulated by propaganda technique easily. Here he emphasizes the term propaganda to gain the trust of the people.

Larry Tye a well-known Journalist wrote Biography of Edward Bernays called ‘The Future of Spin’ in 1999.

  • His Books:-

  1.  The Broadway Anthology (1917)
  2. Crystallizing public opinion (1923)
  3. Propaganda (1928)
  4. Public Relation (1945)
  5. The Engineering of Consent (1955)
  •  Major Public relation campaigns of Edward Bernays:-

  1. Cigarettes
  2. Water fluoridation
  3. Food
  4. Political Propaganda
  5. Hygiene
  6. The Arts


Restriction in Media research


  1.  The press and Registration of Book Act – 1867
  2. The Press (Objectionable Matters) Act – 1951
  3. The Cinematography Act – 1952
  4. Delivery of Books & Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act – 1954
  5. Drug and Magic Remedies Act -1954
  6. The Working Journalist and Other Newspaper Employees Act – 1955
  7. The Newspaper (Price & Pages) Act – 1956
  8. The Copyright Act- 1957
  9. Defense of India Act – 1962
  10. Civil Defense Act – 1968
  11. Monopolies & Restrictive Trade Practices Act – 1969
  12. Press Council Act – 1978
  13. Cine Workers and Cinema Theater Workers Act – 1981
  14. Cable TV Networks (Regulation) Act – 1995
  15. The Indecent Representation of Women ( Prohibition) Act – 1986
  16. The Information Technology Act – 2000
  17. The Newspapers ( Incitement to offence ) Act – 1908
  18. The Prasar Bharti Act – 1990
  19. The Telegraph Act- 1885
  20. The Juvenile Justice (care & Protection of Children ) Act -2000
  21. The official Secrets Act – 1923
  22. The Press Council Act- 1978
  23. The Parliamentary Proceedings ( Protection of Publication ) Act- 1977




Television HistoryMR2325_Retro-old-television-in-vintage-wall-pastel-color-background

Television experiment was first initiated in 1920 in the USA and Europe. After a few years of this experiment, the Iconoscope (the electric television tube) was invented in 1923. Iconoscope was the first video camera tube that has been used in early television camera’s. it was invented by Vladimir K. Zworykin. He also invented Kinescope or picture tube (it is known as Telerecording in Britain) that records a television program on motion picture film. This term refers to the Cathode Ray tube used in a television receiver discovered by Julius Plucker and Johann Wilhelm Hittorf. Cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube used to display images.

The satellite communication has begun in 1962 with the launch of Intelsat also known as the Early Bird. It was the first commercial communication satellite launched April 6th, 1965. It was built by space and communication group of Hughes Aircraft Company ( now it became Boeing satellite system).

The arrival of Television in India : 

On September 15th, 1959, the Delhi Television Centre went on air. It was an experiment service, a UNESCO pilot project. From August 1965 entertainment and information program has begun. Germany’s Federal Republic helped to build Production studio.

  • Krishi Darshan program was began in January 1967.
  • The Bombay center was opened in 1972.
  • Calcutta, Madras, and Lucknow centers were opened in 1975.
  • January 1st, 1976 commercials came to be telecast at all the centers.
  • In 1976 television delinked from AIR and became Doordarshan.
  • In 1975, SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) an experimental satellite communication was launched in India. An American satellite has borrowed for one year (AT 5-6).
  • Color Television came in India in 1982.
  • Early 90’s the arrival of Star TV from Hong Kong.
  • The DTH (Direct To Home ) service launched by Doordarshan in 2003.
  • In 2007 conditional Access System (CAS) had become obligatory for the cable TV households in Delhi by TRAI ( Telecom Regulatory Authority of India ).
  • CAS means that households could pay for those channels they chose to watch.
  • HITS ( Headed- In- The- Sky ) is another delivery mode of television content. It delivers satellite channels to the cable operators through a HITS.
  • HDTV, mobile TV can also be provided by HITS.

Distribution technologies for TV content:-

  • Terrestrial TV
  • Cable
  • Cable and Satellite
  • CAS ( Conditional Access System)
  • DTH (Direct To Home)
  • HITS ( Headend in the Sky )
  • IPTV ( Internet Protocol TV )
  • HDTV ( High Definition TV )
  • The Internet
  • Mobile Telephones
  • Digital Terrestrial Television

TV ( DD) services :

  • 1965- News broadcasting started.
  • 1976- business service started ( commercial service)
  • 15th August 1982- National broadcasting started.
  • 23rd February 1987- morning transmission started.
  • 26th January 1989 – afternoon broadcasting started.
  • 10th July 1999- news broadcasting every hour has been started.
  • 2003- DD news started in the place of DD Metro. DD Metro has been started in 1984.
  • 1995- DD started its international channel called DD World. IN 2002 it has been changed into DD India.
  • 15th August 1993 – music, sports, Business news, and current affairs channel has been started.
  • 2004- digital broadcasting of all DD channels.
  • 26th January 2002- Prasar Bharti started DD Bharti.


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