Riley & Riley Model

Riley & Riley Model 

The husband and wife team of Sociologists John W. and Matilda White Riley developed the communication model called Riley and Riley model. They discussed about their ideas about communication theory in an article entitled Mass Communication and the Social System in 1959. The idea of their work revolves around the Aristotle and Lasswell model of communication.


The model shows communicator (C) emerges as a part of the larger social system who sends messages and information according to the expectations or needs of  group or people within the same social structure.  this process also same for the receiver (R). this model clearly shows that the model is two- way process. It is a two way communication and both C & R are part of this large social system.

larger social structure (1) holds , communicator, primary group a1 and a2. communicator (C) represents the larger social group 1. larger social group 2 holds receiver, primary group b1 and b2. Receiver (R) is representing the large social group 2.

in the above model we can see that the large Group 1 and large Group 2 comes under the Overall Social System. communicator and receiver are interdependent by  feedback. It is a two way communication. this model helps to solve the dispute between two groups with in a large social system. It creates better understanding between the groups.

here it needs to understand that who are the primary group? in primary group might be your friends, relatives with whom you can share a degree of intimacy.

ACT Theory

ACT Theory

The ACT is a cognition theory developed by John R. Anderson an American Psychologist. He was born in 1947 in Vancouver, British Columbia. He was well known as Cognition Architect as he had expertized in Cognitive Psychology.


This theory talked about the tasks performed by Human Beings. Each and every task performed by humans are considered several steps and process. This model provides a framework of the process that happens in our mind during the time of our activities. This framework may look like a programming language. ACT theory is basically inspired by the work of Allen Newell.

ACT-R, Adaptive Concept of thought-Rational is based on the assumption that human knowledge can be divided into two kinds of representations first is Declarative and second is Procedural. ACT-R is a cognitive architecture. Cognition is the process of understanding and acquiring knowledge through thought. The ACT architecture made up of framework or model.

The main components of the ACT are:-

  1. Modules- there are two types of modules:-
  • Perceptual motor module- it intersects with the real or outer world. It may take care of the inferences.
  • Memory module- these are of three kinds
  1. Procedural memory:- this is the memory we generally use in simple things such as removing the pen cap.
  2. Declarative memory:- this is a kind of memory consists of facts and information regarding something. Such as minutes in one hour.
  3. Working memory:- it is a long term memory which highly activated.


  1. Buffers- the buffer system provides accessibility to cognitive adaptations thoughts.
  2. Pattern Matcherit attempt for the production that matches current state of buffer. These productions work for a specific period of time and later they alter the buffer and changes occurred in the system. This is also why ACT also explains as s production system. Every human task can be made on this task. The model of each person is different that’s why it also performs or thought differently. This model helps to find out quantitative measures. This theory finds out perception and attention, problem-solving and decision making, language and communication, individual difference between persons.


The Osgood- Schramm Model

The Osgood- Schramm Model

In 1954 Charles E. Osgood presented the theory of meaning. Wilbur Schramm changed this theory of meaning into a model and after this model became the Circular Model of communication.

osgood and schramm model 3

Charles E. Osgood was an American Psychologist who developed the technique of measuring the ‘connotative meaning’ of the concept, known as semantic Differential. Osgood was born in Somerville, Massachusetts and did his P.hD from Yale University.

Wilbur Schramm was a scholar and also known as the authoritarian of Mass Communication. he was a great influencer of mass communication and was the one who established the departments of mass communication studies across the universities of the United States. He was the first person who called himself a communication Scholar. Schramm did a pilot project called Mass Communication Program for his P.hD in Lowa University.  

Schramm was born in Germany. In 1935 he found literally magazine called American Prefaces: A Journal of creative and imagery writing. Schramm was especially influential for his 1964 book Mass Media and National Development which was published in conjunction with UNESCO, which effectively began research into the link between the spread of communication technology and socio-economic development.

In Mass Media and National Development (1964), Schramm said that mass media in developing countries needed to play three roles—those of watchdog, policymaker, and teacher for change and modernization.

  • The Osgood –Schramm Model

The Osgood and Schramme model is about two way of communication between Sender and Receiver. Osgood popularized the statement that communication is circular rather linear, which requires sender and receiver for sharing their information.

osgood and schramm model 2

Wilbur Schramm talked about this model in his book called The Process and Effect of Communication. he adapted this model to make theory. He added the notion of field of experience in his theory. Field of experience assimilates a mutual understanding of both the parties.


Wilbur Schramm adapted Shannon and Weaver’s model of Human communication called a mathematical model but Schramm stressed encoding and decoding aspects as crucial. He defines communication as the sharing of information, ideas, and attitudes.

In Osgood and Schramm model encoding and decoding is the most important component. In electronic communication, he explains substitute for encoder ( microphone) and decoder (earphone). In his model, he considers encoder and source is one person and decoder and destination is another. Here signal is language and you are talking about human communication.

  • Components of Model

osgood and schramm model

Sender (encoder)- this is the person who sends (encodes) his/her message.

Receiver (decoder)- This is the person who receives (decodes) the message from the sender.

Interpreter- person trying to understand, perceive or analysis the message.

Message – this is the message being shared between both the parties.

Semantic barrier- field of experience, beliefs, background, and beliefs that influence sender and receiver to interprets their message. When semantic noise takes place decoding becomes difficult and people get diverged from the actual message.












सोशल लोफिंग सिद्धांत

सोशल लोफिंग सिद्धांत

Social Loafing theory

यह सिद्धांत विलियम लैटाने (William Latane) द्वारा अनुभव किआ गया था | सामजिक मनोविज्ञान में एक एक ऐसी घटना है जिसमे कहा गया है की कुछ लोगों के एक ग्रुप द्वारा किआ गया काम उतना प्रभावित या लक्ष्य को प्राप्त नहीं करता जितना की एक वियक्ति द्वारा किआ गया काम | दूसरे शब्दों में, जब हम समूहों में काम करते हैं तो हमारे प्रयासों का स्तर लगातार घटता है जिसमे हम कड़ी महनत नहीं करते हैं जबकि हम व्यक्तिगत रूप से किये गए  काम में कड़ी मेहनत करते हैं। इसे एक समूह द्वारा किये गए उत्पादन में कमी का भी एक बड़ा कारण माना गया है |

रस्सी खींचने प्रयोग (Rope pulling experiment): –

3D human pulling a rope

सोशल लोफिंग का शोध मैक्स रिंगेलमैन द्वारा 1913 में रस्सी खींचने के प्रयोग से शुरू हुआ, जिन्होंने पाया कि समूह के सदस्यों ने अकेले व्यक्ति की तुलना में रस्सी खींचने में कम प्रयास किया था।

यह स्टडी क्या कहती है ?

  • इस अध्ययन में शोधकर्ता ने पाया की जब प्रतिभागियों से रस्सी खीचने को कहा गया तो उन्होंने सामूहिक रूप से इतना अच्छा प्रदर्शन नहीं किआ जितना की व्यक्तिगत रूप से किआ | सामूहिक कार्य इतना प्रभावशाली सिद्ध नहीं हुआ जितना की व्यक्तिगत कार्य | शोधकर्ता ने इसके पीछे के कारण को परिभाषित नहीं किआ की व्यक्तिगत रूप से खिची गई रस्सी में सामूहिक रूप से खिची रस्सी से ज्यादा बल क्यों था |
  • 1974 में जेम्स ग्रेव्स (James Graves), एलन इनघम (Alan Ingham) नामक कुछ शोधकर्ताओं और सहयोगियों ने दो प्रकार के समूह का उपयोग करके रिंगेलमैन के प्रयोग को दोहराया: एक वास्तविक समूह प्रतिभागियों के विभिन्न आकारों में (real group participants in various sizes ) और दूसरा एक छद्म समूह है (Pseudo-groups ) जिसमें केवल एक असली प्रतिभागी है जहां केवल एक व्यक्ति ही रस्सी को खिचता है और बाकिओ द्वारा खींचने का नाटक किया जाता है|
  • इस आगे के अध्ययन में, इंगम (Ingham) ने साबित किया कि खेल खोने के पीछे संचार ही एकमात्र कारण नहीं था बल्कि प्रेरणा (motivation) की कमी भी इसके पीछे कारण थी।

सोशल लोअफिंग के नतीजे:

  • नकरात्म परिणाम– यह समूह या व्यक्ति दोनों के लिए नकारात्मक हो सकता है। ग्रुप डायनामिक प्रभावित हो सकता है यदि कुछ व्यक्ति समूह में कम प्रभावी लगते हैं।
  • यह समूहों को तोड़ सकता है – एकता की कमी समूह को तोड़ सकती है। समान प्रयास देने की आवश्यकता है। उदाहरण के लिए, यदि 10 लोगों का समूह है जिसमें से 4 काम कर रहे हैं और अन्य कुछ भी अच्छा नहीं कर रहे हैं तो यह निश्चित रूप से समूह में असंतुलन पैदा करेगा ।

सोशल लोअफिंग के कारण :

  • समूह का आकार– जितना बड़ा समूह होगा उतनी ज्यादा सोशल लोअफिंग की संभावना होगी |
  • प्रेरणा का निम्न स्तर – प्रेरणा की अनुपस्थिति खराब समूह भागीदारी में वृद्धि करेगी। लोग कई कारणों से समूह कार्य में भाग लेने से बचते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, एक समूह कार्य एक कार्यालय समूह को देता है। कुछ सदस्य समूह में भाग लेना पसंद नहीं कर सकते क्योंकि वे उस मामले में अकेले काम करना पसंद करते हैं ऐसे में प्रेरणा कारक काम करता है। एक नेता या प्रबंधक को अपने समूह के लोगों को प्रेरित करने की आवश्यकता होती है ताकि वे अपना सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्रदर्शन कर सकें और अपना लक्ष्य प्राप्त कर सकें।
  • इक्विटी सिद्धांत: काम का असमान वितरण| काम को समान रूप से समूह में हर एक व्यक्ति को बांटा जाए ताकि हर कोई काम में अपनी उपस्थिति दिखा सके |

रोकथाम (prevention ) :

  • समूह लक्ष्यों को सेट करें
  • इंटरग्रुप प्रतियोगिता बढ़ाएं
  • व्यक्तिगत सदस्यों के योगदान के आधार पर समूह पुरस्कार वितरित करें।

 Two-step theory

 Two-step theory

The concept of Two-step flow theory was presented by Paul Felix Lazarsfeld. He was American- Australian Sociologist. He also presented the concept of opinion Leader in his two-step theory.

Hypodermic theory and bullet theory talked about the direct effect of media messages, but two-step flow theory is totally opposite of these theories. It emphasizes human factors rather than the direct impact of mass media.

According to this theory ideas and information spread in two steps. First from mass media to opinion leader and opinion leader to the general public.


Along with this concept, the important role of an opinion leader is found. In two-step flow theory, the role of an opinion leader is most effective. They have a huge role in society. They have the ability to influence more people. Opinion leaders do not have any legal power or status however they have much knowledge in their respected areas that they can influence people easily. They act as a mediator between the media and the public.

In 1940 during the presidential election in America Paul F. Lazarsfeld studied the voting behavior of the American public. His research was published in the book called “ the people choice”.  He studied the psychological and sociological process of the people with respect to the voting decision during the election. He analysis the influence process and highlighted the importance of opinion leader. This process he termed as the two-step flow theory.

In 1940 Paul F. Lazzersfled wrote about opinion leader in the book called The people choice. In the context of the American presidential election, he wrote in that book that information first received by opinion leaders through mass media ( Radio, Television) later it delivers to the less active people of the society through opinion leader.   This is also known as personal influence theory and individual effect.

In 1955, Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld highlighted the concept of two-step flow and opinion leader in the book called “personal influence”.


According to the research related to opinion leader, the effect of interpersonal communication is much and continuous than a mass communication medium. This is not related to the matter of politics only but it is also applicable the matter of fashion, film, market, etc.

 Criticism of two-step flow

According to many scholars, opinion leaders have been shown unnecessarily highly colored. The mass communication medium has a vast reach and they have the quality to influence people. It has a direct reach to the vast public and people do not have the need to depend on others for any information or idea. In 1971 Westley with reference to different studies talked about the direct effect of mass medium. He said almost all the big news come directly in the contact of the people without any other involvement between the mass media and public.


Lasswell formula

Harold Dwight Lasswell

Harold D. Lasswell was an American Scientist & Communication theorist. He did his P.HD from Chicago University and was a Professor of Law at Yale University. He has been known a “One man university” because of his expertise in different sectors such as communication, psychology, anthropology, economics, law, and sociology are the reasons to make him a political scientist.

 Introduction of the model :

Harold D. Lasswell is well known for his model of communication which focuses on who\ says what\in which channel\ to whom\ with what effect. He presented this model in 1948 This model is also known as a political model because he also presented the same statement regarding politics – politics is who gets what, when, where, How, and why.

This model of communication is known as a verbal model, uni-directional, action model and one-way process model of communication. The main focus of the model is baking down all the elements of the communication to understand it completely.

Lasswell presented the literal model of communication, not a graphical model. This model is known as the first organized model of communication.

 Theory :

This model was developed to analyze the concept of mass communication. This model is used in interpersonal communication to disseminate information to the audience. This is a one-way model where feedback is not possible. in any communication, feedback is important to become a communication more effective. But this model lack of effectiveness. He designs to understand propaganda but it more talks about the simple way of communication in a traditional way.

This model is regarded as the most influential model of communication by many communication scholars and public relation scholars. In 1948, Lasswell published an article called the structure and function of communication in society. In this article Harold D. Lasswell said if we want to understand any process of communication then we must find out the answers to the following questions :

 Who – communicator

Says what?- message            

In which channel?- Medium

To whom?- Receiver

With what effect?- Effect


Lasswell Model of communication played a huge role to understand the process of communication. This model is best known for interpersonal communication or business communication. Because he also added effect at the end of the process, therefore, feedback is also possible in many situations here. Many scholars have seen this model beneficial in many communication research.

Limitations of Lasswell Model:

  • a linear model of communication.
  • Feedback is not possible
  • he did not talk about barriers while communicating.
  • Lasswell has broken all the communication elements in different parts whereas all are interrelated.
  • He did not talk about in what circumstances a communication process works.

Lasswell crucial works are :

  1. Politics: who gets what, when, how (1936)
  2. The structure and function of communication in society. ( 1948)
  3. Propaganda technique in the world war. (1927)
  4. Psychopathology and politics. ( 1930)
  5. Power and personality. ( 1948)
  6. Political communication: the public language of political elites in India and the US.( 1969)

Richard Braddock (1958)

Richard Braddock presented Lasswell model like this :


Says what?

Through which medium?

To whom?

Under what circumstances?

For what purpose?

With what effect?


Lasswell presented 5 elements in his model whereas Braddock presented 7 elements in the communication process. Braddock adds two elements in his study were not used by Lasswell in his study of communication. He adds circumstances and purpose in his study. But this model did not get much attention and has been criticized for using inferences in his study.

one step flow theory

One step flow theory

This theory is also known as hypodermic needle theory, magic bullet theory and, powerful effect theory. According to the prior scholars of the communication, the mass communication medium is that much effected that they can easily change people ideas according to their own. Even they also have that much power to change the voting decision of people. This is a sender-receiver centric model. According to this model, the sender sends a message and receiver accept it as it is.

One step flow theory direct hits the people minds and change their ideas, thoughts regarding any particular issue. The receiver is passive here and accepts everything that comes through mass media as it is without any reaction.


This theory was basically originated in the 1930s in the context of Behaviorism. It was based on the early observation effect of mass media on people. This can also be understood by graphically

the-hypodermic-needle-theory (1)

This theory assumes that people get influenced by media messages (bullet) fired from the media gun into the viewers head. Similarly, hypodermic needle theory assumes that the media injects the ideas into viewers head and audience accept it passively. The audience can not escape from the effect of the media. This passive audience direct influenced by the media.

That time lack of communication tools and lack of public understanding it was easy for the mass medium to influence anyone effectively and that could be also the reason for people vulnerability.

Diffusion of Innovation

Multi-Step Flow Theory

After two-step flow theory scholars came with the idea of Multi-Step theory. Where two-step theory talks about the indirect effect of mass media from media to opinion leader and opinion leader to general public multi-step theory talks about innovation. In multi-step theory, scholars tried to find out in which process people accept the innovation or reject the innovation.

The concept of Diffusion of Innovation is associated with the Two-Step Flow Theory.

Diffusion of Innovation

Everett Rogers submitted this concept in the book called “ Diffusion of Innovation”. He was the American communication theorist and sociologist. he was born in 1931 in Carroll, Lowa.


The process of dissemination of innovation, virtually that innovation does not reach the wider population, but goes to the last stage of its action or rejection in the society, i.e acceptance or rejection. According to Rogers innovation is related to any new idea, knowledge, behavior or thing.

This theory is not only talking about the quality maintenance of any new Innovation (Product) because every product has a certain amount of age but also about its market value. For any new innovation, it is important to know how much an adopter is interested in your product. It is all about his knowledge, interest, development, etc that shows their ability of acceptance towards any new innovation.


Rogers proposes that adopters of any new Innovation can be classified into five stages. He also identified the percentile of all adopters in his study.

  1. Innovators (2.5%): when a new product arrives in the market these are the people who buy the products are called Innovators. They are the people who trendsetters. They willingly buy products. They do not afraid to take risk while using any new product.
  1. Early adopters (13.5%): the early adopters like to try new things. They do not afraid to invest in new innovation. They are like innovators but are much interested and excited about any new product. They are lager than the innovator group and already have certain knowledge about the product. They have the quality of advertising the product through words of mouth. After using any product for their own they start to make tat more popular by spreading it throughout their known people.


  1. Early majority (34.0%): this group follows the trend but before going purchase they take little time to any decision. When the product becomes extremely popular it automatically increases the demand.



  1. Late majority (34%): this group has a lack of confidence in new innovation. They keep themselves behind and purchase the product after it already bough by a certain group of people. They believe in not to take a bad decision for a new purchase. They purchase the product at the time when its popularity starts decreasing.
  1. Laggards (16.0): this group does not like new innovations or ideas. They are not trend-oriented people. They wait for the time when sales get their lower price.



The graph is shown above shows a cumulative percentage of adopters over a time. It is slow in the beginning, in the middle it increases as adoption increases, then it goes on and at the end it percentages decreases as laggards have not adopted.

Each adopters ability and willingness is depended on their interest, knowledge, trial, and adoption. People can fall in different categories for different innovations. A teacher can be an early adopter of the new technical method, but a late adopter of fashion innovation.


Claude Elwood Shannon and Warren Weaver

Claude Shannon is known as the father of Information Theory. He was an American mathematician, electric engineer, and Cryptographer. His theory was a landmark, ‘mathematical theory of communication has been published in Bail system technical journal in 1948. Shannon was born (1862-1934) in the Petoskey, in the U.S.A state of Michigan. He has also created a magnetic mouse called  Theseus in 1950.

Warren Weaver was a mathematician and American scientist. He is best recognizes one of the pioneers of machine translation.


This theory is known as engineering, a technical, mathematical model of communication. Many scientists had given this model a name called the mother of all the model because many time social scientist use this term to integrated different concepts such as a transmitter, signal, information source, signal, decoding, encoding, noise, and signal, etc.

In 1948 Shannon along with warren weaver presented ‘the theory of communication’ in Bail system technical journal.


In 1948 Shannon explained the process of telephonic communication through a model. This model has six elements – Source, Transmitter, Channel Receiver, and Destination. Here, noise one more elements are directly connected with the channel. In 1948 Shannon published a Mathematical theory of communication. In his work, Shannon used tools in Probability theory developed by Weaver. Shannon developed Entropy which measures the amount of uncertainty involved in the random process. For example, if we flip a coin it has two equally outcomes means less information whereas roll of a die ha six equal chance of outcomes.

Information theory studies information on communication and storage. It studies the transmission, processing, and uses of information. In this case communication stats from the information source to transmitter and from the transmitter it transfers on a different channel ( here channel is important to note because it contains noise which is also an element of this model.) through this channel receiver accept his message and it reaches to its destination finally.   



from the beginning, it is not connected with the noise but as it comes to the contact of the channel it interacts with the noise that makes this model more critical to understand. Here one thing is important to note Redundancy, which means repetition. Chances will increase to speak again and again the same thing if the noise is connected with the channel because it might make the receiver confused to understand the content of the source. This will also increase the time duration of the communication.

for example:  two people A and B are talking on the phone. A asked about studies to B over Phone. B replied to A about his competition of football. A asked him again the same question and he replied to him with the same answer and sometimes B asked A to repeat his words again. Eventually, the conclusion came out that there was a problem with the channel through which they both were connected. There must be a barrier (noise) presented in the channel (telephone) which interrupted their communication.

The best thing about Shannon and Weaver model of communication was noise (barrier). If the message that was sent to the destination was exact same then it would be called successful communication. but it is not possible due to the barrier (noise). The higher the barrier, the less successful the communication. the lower the barrier, the higher successful the communication would be.

The higher the probability of noise in communication, the greater the chances of Redundancy. Though, this allows a communication channel to transmit less its capacity because it increases the chances of repetition.

Theories main Concepts are :

  • Redundancy
  • Entropy
  • Noise
  • Channel capacity

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