German Expressionism Cinema

German Expressionism Cinema

German Expressionism is an artistic style that first appeared in poetry and theatre in 1910. It became popular in films after WWI. Initially, it has come from German romanticism but later german filmmakers have been used hyper expressive performances and visual distortions to show the countries turmoils, fears, and their collective anxiety of that era. German expressionism reflected the inner conflicts of German audiences through films. This movement does not talk about cinematic realism. It is expressionist films showcased dramatic, revolutionary interpretations of the human condition of that time.   

The German expressionism grabbed the audience’s attention and became famous after WWI. If you want to consider the real-life situation of the country after WWI then its no wonder that German cinema showed and gave all the expression of the war through its cinema that we think is enough to make people feel what has happened during that era. This cinema was a combination of emotions, feelings, and expressions.

German expressionism

German expressionism has been used in films with a high contrast of dark and light to convey darkest sets.charactrisits of German Expressionism are- High angels, Extream camera tilting, Deep shadows, Imposible sets.  

Background:-

In 1916, Germen Expressionism cinema was banned by the German government because of the effect of the WWI. The increase in the demand from theatre to generate films on domestic titles leads to an increase in domestic film production from 24 films in 1914 to 130 films in 1918. That time German audience has become less interested in romance and action flicks since the beginning of WWI so for that reason themes like cruelty, violence, betrayal have been in demand from the audience’s side. The country was going to the drastic change to filmmakers were aware of the inflation also so they decided to keep attending films more freely as they knew about their money’s value was constantly diminishing. That unfortunate circumstances and hyperinflation provided a platform to daring innovative filmmakers like F.W. Murnau (Nosferatu), Fritz Lang ( Metropolis) to make german expressionism the most influential movement in cinematic history.

– Fritz Lang “I am profoundly fascinated by cruelty, fear, horror, and death. My films show my preoccupation with violence, the pathology of violence.”

Unlike other cinema movements, Expressionism has existed before the invention of cinema. This helps us to understand the principles of expressionism and how the filmmaker has been used this expressionism in their filmmaking to enhance the mood and quality of the film that helps the audience to get connected by the films. We can consider Edvard Munch’s “The Scream” that was the most famous expressionist painting of all time. By seeing that painting we can easily get noticed how the concept allows the mood to be expressed by creative distortion. It shows the impression of the painting. In film, this ideology can apply to every aspect of the creative process to dream like the scene to melodramatic on-screen performances. Though, german expressionism has a close link that ties to architecture design. A film such as The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and Metropolis is often studied as a perfect example of how set design can be used to create a world that is aesthetically controlled by the film’s emotional instructions.

Example of German Expressionism

The Cabinet of Dr.Caligari ( 1920) was the German silent Horror film directed by Robert Wiene and written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer. It considered the classic example of German expressionist cinema. it tells the story of an insane hypnotist (Werner Krauss) who uses a somnambulist (Conrad Veidt) to commit murders. The film features a dark and twisted visual style, with sharp-pointed forms, oblique and curving lines, structures, and landscapes that lean and twist in unusual angles, and shadows and streaks of light painted directly onto the sets.

German Expressionism Portrays a Subjective, Emotional World Rather Than An Objective Reality. It was the movement that provided thoughts to make cinema-like had been made that era. In contemporary times German expressionism can be seen through medium used by the directors to make the film more expressionist. German expressionism experience the impact within the horror genre on what we can’t exaggerate.

The artistry of German Expressionism film

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Soviet Montage Cinema

Soviet Montage Cinema

Soviet montage is an approach to understand and create a cinema that relies on editing or montage. The Soviet montage movement began nearly in 1924. During the years of the Russian Revolution, the filmmaker has been found themselves short for supplying of cinema. At that time what they decide was using pieces of films from prior projects and presented them in a  different way with a different meaning.

Lev Kuleshov was the pioneer in the Filmmaking theory. Lev Kuleshov realized that an actor’s expression wasn’t enough to convey a specific idea, therefore juxtaposed images must. His theory is also known as the “Kuleshov Experiment”. In his experiment audience saw the close of a man followed by Soup Bowl, Casket and an attractive woman. When the audience saw that they assumed the man, the soup bowl, again saw that man then figure out he must be hungry and want soup. Now when the soup bowl replaced by casket they think he must be sad as a child died. Eventually, casket replaced by an attractive woman and people thinks he must want something desirable. If you see that you will notice the face of the man was the same, it means one footage has been used for different elements and it looked exactly the same as we perceived it.

Kuleshov Experiment

Einsenstine was the biggest theorist of the Montage. He considered the montage a nerve of cinema. He wrote a book called Film Forms, where he emphasized how the duration and movement of a shot, and emotions can affect the audience. Filmmakers like Dziga Vertov and Sergei Eisenstein did not believe in the continuity system of shots in cinema they thought it make reality fake. They believed in the dialectic system which was about the conflict between the ideas. Eisenstein wanted to move the audience’s emotions and inspire them to get behind the revolution.

Montage:-

Montage is a technique of film editing in which short shots are sequenced to condense space, time and information. This term has been used in a different context such as in French the term montage use in cinema simply in terms of editing.  Montage originally originated from Russia by Eisenstein where it was used to create symbolism. Later this technique was used by Britain and American studios to show the “montage sequence” to suggest the passage of time. The montage sequence often used the short shots with optical effects like fade, dissolve, slit screen, double exposure. This technique has been changed the way of making films with the means of editing techniques.

Soviet montage was not even famous for illustrating philosophical point but it had the ability to manipulate how a viewer perceives a certain event. In Eisenstein’s film Battelship Potemkin (1925), there is a sequence which is known as Odessa Steps. In this scene protesting citizens are moving down by Tsarist troops. This sequence used the whole montage technique where he used the graphics, short shots of real incidence, dramatic cuts from wide shots to extream close-up shots. This film was a highly respected film in the year 1958 and voted to be the best ever film made by Sergei Eisenstein.

Battleship Potemkin 1925

Battleship Potemkin is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. It presents a dramatized version of the mutiny that occurred in 1905 when the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin rebelled against their officers.

To understand the meaning more clear you can watch the movie. Link below.

Types of Montage:-

Sergei Eisenstein categorized montage into five different types:-

  1. Metric montage – this is simple editing where long shorts get shorten without losing the scene’s originality and emotions attached to that scene. This type of os scene generally uses suspense and tension science.
  2. Rhythmic montage – Each shot’s length derives from the specifics of the piece and from its planned length according to the structure of the sequence.
  3. Tonal montage- this is a combination of both the metric and rhythmic montage that highlights the emotional themes that may present at a particular time. This technique is more subjective. In this, you can use videos and images.  
  4. Overton montage- it is a practice of cutting various tones and overtones of the shot. It is an abstract than tonal. It is the simultaneous use of the above three which forms over tonal montage and creates conflict between the shots.
  5. Intellectual montage- this one is the combination of the above four montages. It does not even create conflict between the shots but also arise complex emotion to the audience that makes the film more realistic and make people more plight of the character on the screen. Einstein’s movie Strike (1925) is an example to understand this.

 Four primary directors who used soviet montage in their cinema

  1. Sergei Eisenstein
  2. Lev Kuleshov
  3. Dziga Vertov
  4. Vsevolod Pudovkin

Classic Movies of the Time

  1. Strike, 1925
  2. Battleship Potemkin, 1925
  3. The end of St. Petersburg, 1927
  4. October, 1928
  5. Citizen Kane, 1941
  6. Casablanca, 1942

For further readings you may check out these links mention below:-

  Film Genres

 Film Genres

 Genre Types
(represented by icons)

 Genre Descriptions

pic

Action films usually include high energy, big-budget physical stunts and chases, possibly with rescues, battles, fights, escapes, destructive crises (floods, explosions, natural disasters, fires, etc.), non-stop motion, spectacular rhythm and pacing, and adventurous, often two-dimensional ‘good-guy’ heroes (or recently, heroines) battling ‘bad guys’ – all designed for pure audience escapism. Includes the James Bond ‘fantasy’ spy/espionage series, martial arts films, video-game films, so-called ‘blaxploitation’ films, and some superhero films. A major sub-genre is a disaster film

2 Adventure films are usually exciting stories, with new experiences or exotic locales, very similar to or often paired with the action film genre. They can include traditional swashbucklers or pirate films, serialized films, and historical spectacles (similar to the epics film genre), searches or expeditions for lost continents, “jungle” and “desert” epics, treasure hunts, disaster films, or searches for the unknown.
3 Comedies are light-hearted plots consistently and deliberately designed to amuse and provoke laughter (with one-liners, jokes, etc.) by exaggerating the situation, the language, action, relationships, and characters. This section describes various forms of comedy through cinematic history, including slapstick, screwball, spoofs and parodies, romantic comedies, black comedy (dark satirical comedy), and more. See this site’s Funniest Film Moments and Scenes collection – illustrated, also Premiere Magazine’s 50 Greatest Comedies of All Time, and WGA’s 101 Funniest Screenplays of All Time.
4 Crime (gangster) films are developed around the sinister actions of criminals or mobsters, particularly bankrobbers, underworld figures, or ruthless hoodlums who operate outside the law, stealing and murdering their way through life. The criminals or gangsters are often counteracted by a detective-protagonist with a who-dun-it plot. Hard-boiled detective films reached their peak during the 40s and 50s (classic film noir), although has continued to the present day. Therefore, crime and gangster films are often categorized as film noir or detective-mystery films, and sometimes as courtroom/crime legal thrillers – because of underlying similarities between these cinematic forms. This category also includes various ‘serial killer’ films.
d Dramas are serious, plot-driven presentations, portraying realistic characters, settings, life situations, and stories involving intense character development and interaction. Usually, they are not focused on special-effects, comedy, or action, Dramatic films are probably the largest film genre, with many subsets. See also melodramas, epics (historical dramas)courtroom dramas, or romantic genres. Dramatic biographical films (or “biopics”) are a major sub-genre, as are ‘adult’ films (with mature subject content).
6 Epics include costume dramas, historical dramaswar films, medieval romps, or ‘period pictures’ that often cover a large expanse of time set against a vast, panoramic backdrop. Epics often share elements of the elaborate adventure films genre. Epics take a historical or imagined event, mythic, legendary, or heroic figure, and add an extravagant setting or period, lavish costumes, and accompany everything with grandeur and spectacle, dramatic scope, high production values, and a sweeping musical score. Epics are often a more spectacular, lavish version of a biopic film. Some ‘sword and sandal’ films (Biblical epics or films occurring during antiquity) qualify as a sub-genre.
7 Horror films are designed to frighten and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us at the same time in a cathartic experience. Horror films feature a wide range of styles, from the earliest silent Nosferatu classic to today’s CGI monsters and deranged humans. They are often combined with science fiction when the menace or monster is related to a corruption of technology, or when Earth is threatened by aliens. The fantasy and supernatural film genres are not always synonymous with the horror genre. There are many sub-genres of horror: slasher, splatter, psychological, survival, teen terror, ‘found footage,’ serial killers, paranormal/occult, zombies, Satanic, monsters, Dracula, Frankenstein, etc. See this site’s Scariest Film Moments and Scenes collection – illustrated.
8 Musical/dance films are cinematic forms that emphasize full-scale scores or song and dance routines in a significant way (usually with a musical or dance performance integrated as part of the film narrative), or they are films that are centered on combinations of music, dance, song or choreography. Major subgenres include musical comedy or the concert film. See this site’s Greatest Musical Song/Dance Movie Moments and Scenes collection – illustrated.
9 Sci-fi films are often quasi-scientific, visionary and imaginative – complete with heroes, aliens, distant planets, impossible quests, improbable settings, fantastic places, great dark and shadowy villains, futuristic technology, unknown and unknowable forces, and extraordinary monsters (‘things or creatures from space’), either created by mad scientists or by nuclear havoc. They are sometimes an offshoot of the more mystical fantasy films (or superhero films), or they share some similarities with action/adventure films. Science fiction often expresses the potential of technology to destroy humankind and easily overlaps with horror films, particularly when technology or alien life forms become malevolent, as in the “Atomic Age” of sci-fi films in the 1950s. Science-Fiction sub-categories abound: apocalyptic or dystopic, space-opera, futuristic noirs, speculative, etc.
10 War (and anti-war) films acknowledge the horror and heartbreak of war, letting the actual combat fighting (against nations or humankind) on the land, sea, or in the air provide the primary plot or background for the action of the film. War films are often paired with other genres, such as actionadventuredramaromancecomedy (black), suspense, and even historical epics and westerns, and they often take a denunciatory approach toward warfare. They may include POW tales, stories of military operations, and training. See this site’s Greatest War Movies (in multiple parts).
11 Westerns are the major defining genre of the American film industry – a eulogy to the early days of the expansive American frontier. They are one of the oldest, most enduring genres with very recognizable plots, elements, and characters (six-guns, horses, dusty towns and trails, cowboys, Indians, etc.). They have evolved over time, however, and have often been re-defined, re-invented and expanded, dismissed, re-discovered, and spoofed. Variations have included Italian ‘spaghetti’ westerns, epic westerns, comic westerns, westerns with outlaws or marshals as the main characters, revenge westerns, and revisionist westerns.
Sub-Genre Types
(represented by icons)
Sub-Genre Descriptions
12 ‘Biopics’ is a term derived from the combination of the words “biography” and “pictures.” They are a sub-genre of the larger drama and epic film genres, and although they reached a hey-day of popularity in the 1930s, they are still prominent to this day. These films depict the life of an important historical personage (or group) from the past or present era. Biopics cross many genre types since these films might showcase a western outlaw, a criminal, a musical composer, a religious figure, a war-time hero, an entertainer, an artist, an inventor or doctor, a politician or President, or an adventurer.
13 Often considered an all-encompassing sub-genre, ‘chick’ flicks or gal films (slightly derisive terms) mostly include formulated romantic comedies (with mismatched lovers or female relationships), melodramatic tearjerkers and gal-pal films, movies about family crises and emotional catharsis, some traditional ‘weepies’ and fantasy-action adventures, sometimes with foul-mouthed and empowered females, and female bonding situations involving families, mothers, daughters, children, women, and women’s issues. These films are often told from the female P-O-V, and star a female protagonist or heroine. This type of film became very prominent in the mid-80s and into the 90s. See also O Magazine’s 50 Greatest Chick Flicks. Their counterpart films for males have termed ‘guy’ films (see below). See also this site’s compilation of Greatest Tearjerker Films, Moments and Scenes.
14 One of the best subject areas for dramatic films (or sometimes crime films) is suspenseful, law-related courtroom trials, which pit lawyers against each other, and set up a tense one-on-one conflict between a prosecutor and a defendant. Sometimes, the protagonists are a “little” guy (an individual) against a “big” guy (or corporation), or the more abstract “good” vs. “evil,” or they often involve wider issues, such as race, sex, capital punishment (life and death), and morality. And of course, courtroom dramas usually contain some of the most fascinating thematic elements in film — murder, betrayal, deception, perjury, and sex. They often feature unexpected twists and surprise testimony, unusual motives, moral dilemmas, crusading lawyers and wrongly-accused victims. AFI defined courtroom drama as “a genre of film in which a system of justice plays a critical role in the film’s narrative.” See this site’s special feature highlighting the Greatest Courtroom Dramas.
15 Detective-mystery films are usually considered a sub-type or sub-genre of crime/gangster films (or film noir), or suspense or thriller films that focus on the unsolved crime (usually the murder or disappearance of one or more of the characters, or a theft), and on the central character – the hard-boiled detective-hero, as he/she meets various adventures and challenges in the cold and methodical pursuit of the criminal or the solution to the crime.
16 Disaster films, a sub-genre of action films, hit their peak in the decade of the 1970s. Big-budget disaster films provided all-star casts and interlocking, Grand Hotel-type stories, with suspenseful action and impending crises (man-made or natural) in locales such as aboard imperiled airliners, trains, dirigibles, sinking or wrecked ocean-liners, or in towering burning skyscrapers, crowded stadiums or earthquake zones. Often noted for their visual and special effects, but not their acting performances. See Greatest Disaster Film Scenes also.
17 Fantasy films, usually considered a sub-genre, are most likely to overlap with the film genres of science fiction and horror, although they are distinct. Fantasies take the audience to dark netherworld places (or another dimension) with mythical creatures, where events are unlikely to occur in real life – they transcend the bounds of human possibility and physical laws. They sometimes take the form of fairy tales that often have elements of magic, myth, wonder, folklore and the extraordinary. Fantasy films can assume epic proportions (multi-episodic), usually when based on ancient Greek writings or more contemporary works. Heroic fantasies follow a hero-character who overcomes various obstacles on a quest. Sword-and sorcery fantasies are another sub-type. One of the major categories of fantasy-action films are the super-hero movies, based quite often on an original comic-strip or comic book character. They may appeal to both children and adults, depending upon the particular film.
18 Film noir (meaning ‘black film’) is a distinct branch of the crime/gangster sagas from the 1930s. Strictly speaking, film noir is not a genre, but rather the mood, style or tone of various American films that evolved in the 1940s, and lasted in a classic period until about 1960. However, film noir has not been exclusively confined to this era and has re-occurred in cyclical form in other years in various neo-noirs. Noirs are usually black and white films with primary moods of melancholy, alienation, bleakness, disillusionment, disenchantment, pessimism, ambiguity, moral corruption, evil, guilt, and paranoia. And they often feature a cynical, loner hero (anti-hero) and femme fatale, in a seedy big city. See this site’s special tribute to Greatest Femmes Fatales in Classic Film Noir.
19 Composed of macho films that are often packed with sophomoric humor, action, cartoon violence, competition, mean-spirited putdowns, and gratuitous nudity and sex. Gal films or ‘chick’ flicks are their counterparts for females. This category of film is highly subject to opinion, although there are many classic, testosterone-laden ‘guy’ films that most viewers would agree upon, as shown in this site’s Greatest ‘Guy’ Movies of All-Time (illustrated). See also the “100 Greatest Guy Movies Ever Made” by Maxim Magazine compiled in 1998 or Men’s Journal’s 50 Best Guy Movies of All Time list compiled in 2003.
20 Melodramas are a sub-type of drama films, characterized by a plot to appeal to the emotions of the audience. Often, film studies criticism used the term ‘melodrama’ pejoratively to connote an unrealistic, pathos-filled tales of romance or domestic situations with stereotypical characters that would directly appeal to feminine audiences (“weeping” or “woman’s films”). See the post-modern version of the “woman’s film” – gal films or ‘chick’ flicks. See also this site’s extensive compilation (illustrated) of Greatest Tearjerker Films, Moments and Scenes.
22 Road films have been a staple of American films from the very start, and have ranged in genres from westernscomediesgangster/crime filmsdramas, and actionadventure films. One thing they all have in common: an episodic journey on the open road (or undiscovered trail), to search for escape or to engage in a quest for some kind of goal — either a distinct destination, or the attainment of love, freedom, mobility, redemption, the finding or rediscovering of oneself, or coming-of-age (psychologically or spiritually).
23 A sub-genre for the most part, this category shares some features with romantic dramas, romantic comedies (“rom-com”), and sexual/erotic films, and have often been derogatorily called chick flicks (see above). These are love stories or affairs of the heart that center on passion, emotion, and the romantic, affectionate involvement of the main characters (usually a leading man and lady), and the journey that their love takes through courtship or marriage. Romance films make the love story the main plot focus. See Greatest and Most Memorable Film Kisses Scenes.
24 Films that have a sports setting (football or baseball stadium, arena, or the Olympics, etc.), event (the ‘big game,’ ‘fight,’ ‘race,’ or ‘competition’), and/or athlete (boxer, racer, surfer, etc.) that are central and predominant in the story. Sports films may be fictional or non-fictional; and they are a hybrid sub-genre category, although they are often dramas or comedy films, and occasionally documentaries or biopics.
25 This category is an off-shoot of fantasy-action films, based quite often on an original comic-strip or comic book character. Fictional super-heroes with extraordinary powers, derived from 1930s-1960s comic books and other more recent sources, have been the subjects of numerous fantasy and sci-fi films (both live-action and animated, and serialized and feature-length) with action-oriented heroes and heroines. Superheroes are repeatedly chosen to be the subjects of big-budget blockbuster films, with glossy production values, expensive CGI special effects, and sets, make-up and costuming. Usually, a simplistic plotline involves the superhero’s struggle against an arch-nemesis or super-villain (usually interested in world domination, the acquisition of riches, or the wreaking of vengeance).
26 Supernatural films, a sub-genre category, may be combined with other genres, including comedysci-fifantasy or horror. They have themes including gods or goddesses, ghosts, apparitions, spirits, miracles, and other similar ideas or depictions of extraordinary phenomena. Interestingly, however, until recently, supernatural films were usually presented in a comical, whimsical, or a romantic fashion, and were not designed to frighten the audience. There are also many hybrids that have combinations of fear, fantasy, horror, romance, and comedy.
27 Thrillers are often hybrids with other genres – there are action-thrillers, crime-caper thrillers, western-thrillers, film-noir thrillers, even romantic comedy-thrillers. Another closely-related genre is the horror film genre. Thriller and suspense films are virtually synonymous and interchangeable categorizations. They are types of films known to promote intense excitement, suspense, a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, anxiety, and nerve-wracking tension. The acclaimed Master of Suspense is Alfred Hitchcock. Spy films may be considered a type of thriller/suspense film.
28 Zombie Films had their origins in the earliest films within the horror genre that was about the ‘raising of the dead,’ such as the Frankenstein films, and the early German expressionistic film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920, Germ.). The zombie film craze started with the Haitian concept of voudou, where a corpse was reanimated and magically controlled by a witch-like bokor (a type of priest, sorcerer, magician, or practitioner). The first feature-length walking-dead film was director Victor Halperin’s cheaply-made White Zombie (1932). It was the decade of the 1960s that ushered in a revolutionary new horror subgenre of zombie pics, from the “Master of the Zombie Film” himself, George A. Romero. The influence of Romero on future zombie films has been phenomenal, and many zombie films in their wake have been imaginative derivatives or mutated examples.

British Broadcasting Corporation

British Broadcasting Corporation

The British broadcasting corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquater is at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the worlds oldest broadcasting organization and the largest broadcaster in the world.

bbc

The founder of the BBC was John Reith, it was founded in 18th October 1922. Its products are Broadcasting, Radio, and Web Portals.

BBC established under a Royal Charter. It works funded by annually license fee of Television which is charged by all the households, Companies, and Organisations who received and record live television broadcast and iPlayer catch up.

BBC world service has been started in 1932 as BBC Empire service. It is the worlds largest international broadcaster which broadcasts radio, and television news, speech, & discussion in more than 40 languages.

BBC gets its revenue from BBC’s Commercial subsidiary BBC studio formally known as BBC worldwide. It sells its programm throughout the world and also distributes BBC World News services.

History:-

  • Britains first live public broadcast was made from the factory of Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company in Chelmsford n June 1920. It was sponsored by daily mail’s Lord Northcliffe.
  • BBC came into existence in January 1st January 1927 and Reith was its first Director-General.

bbc prior slogan

  • Its motto was “Nation Shall Speak Peace unto Nation”.

Television and Radio services of BBC 2000 to 2011:-

  • BBC knowledge ( digital television channel) was replaced by BBC Four (free-to air t.v) launched in 2nd March 2002.
  • CBBC was a British Children’s T.V Brand owned by the BBC whose priamary aimed was for aged group between 6 and 12. Programm called Children’s BBC split into CBBC and C Beebies(free-to air channel for young children) launched in 11th February 2002.
  • New Radio stations were 1xtra, 6 Music, BBC7. 1Xtra was a sister station of Radio 1.
  • BBC choice T.V channel was replaced by BBC Three.
  • BBC News 24 became BBC news channel in 2008.
  • BBC radio 7 became BBC Radio Extra in 2011.
  • In 2008, BBC Alba was launched as a Scottish Gaelic Service.
  • BBC HD was launched in 2006.

At Present:-

  • BBC HD has been closed on 26th March 2013 and replaced with HD Simulcast of BBC Two.
  • BBC Three service was discontinued and replaced by a digital outlet.
  • BBC was under a Royal Charter. The current charter came into existence on 1st January 2017 and runs until 31st December 2026. The 2017 charter abolished the BBC trust replaced with Ofcom (Office of Communication), with governance by the BBC Board.
  • BBC present chairman is David Clementi.

 Commercial Division:-

The BBC also operates a number of wholly-owned commercial divisions:

  • BBC Studios Ltd, headed by Tim Davie, is the former in-house television production; Entertainment, Music & Events, Factual and Scripted (drama and comedy). Following a merger with BBC World Wide in April 2018, it also operates international channels and sells programs and merchandise in the UK and abroad to gain additional income that is returned to BBC programs. It is kept separate from the corporation due to its commercial nature.

bbc studios

  • BBC World News department is in charge of the production and distribution of its commercial global television channel. It works closely with the BBC Newsgroup, but is not governed by it, and shares the corporation’s facilities and staff. It also works with BBC Studios, the channel’s distributor.

bbc world news

  • BBC Studio Works is also separate and officially owns and operates some of the BBC’s studio facilities, such as the BBC Elstree Centre, leasing them out to productions from within and outside of the corporation.

studioworks

Services of BBC:-

bbc services

  • Television
  • Radio
  • News
  • Internet
  • Interactive T.V ( BBC Red Button)
  • Music
  • Ceefax
  • Britbox

 

Chairperson of Media

Chairperson’s of Different Media Industries

Sevices

Full-Form

Chairperson’s

PTI Press Trust of India Vijay Kumar Chopra
UNI United News of India Vishwas Tripathi
DAVP Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity Ghanshyam Goyal
UGC University Grants Commission D.P Singh
MHRD Ministry of Human Resource Development Ramesh Pokhriyal
CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education Anita Karwal
NCERT National Council of Educational Research & Training Hrushikesh Senapaty
Prasar Bharti   Shashi S. Vempati
CBFC Central Board of Film Certification Prasoon Joshi
FTI Film & Television Institute of India B.P Singh
I &B Information & Broadcasting Ministry Prakash Javadekar
PIB Press Information Bureau Sitanshu Ranjan Kar
 

 

Broadcasting Committees

Broadcasting Committees

  1.  Chanda Committee:- it recommended that a broadcasting corporation should be established by an act of parliament in which its objectives should be clearly laid down. It emphasized that the scope of Govt. authority should be clearly defined and be free of ambiguity. Chanda Committee on Broadcasting and information media said in its report on April 1966 that AIR can be liberated and separated Corporation for Akashvani and DD. On April 1st, 1976 TV was separated from AIR.
  2. Verghese Committee:- it recommended the setting up of a National Broadcast Trust called Akash Bharti under which a highly decentralized structure would operate. Verghese committee on 1978 strongly recommended granting broadcasts franchises to educational institution higher education project launched in August 1984 known as Countrywide Classroom.
  3. Joshi committee:- it noted that the crucial issue is not autonomy versus government but urgent reforms in structure and management styles for support to creativity. It recommended the creation of an institutional arrangement which provided co-orientation and integration among political and communication spheres for policy guidelines and evaluation of the software.
  4. Prasar Bharti committee Bill:- this bill (1989) is based on the Verghese report (1978) and the Prasar Bharti Bill (1979) that was introduced by the Janta Regime in Parliament May 1979. this bill clearly wanted broadcasting autonomy to be a part of the Indian Constitution. This committee against the copying blindly the structure and organization of the western broadcasting institution.
  5.  Prasar Bharti Act:– Vardhan Committee (1991) re-examine the Prasar Bharti Act (1990). It suggested that DD should devote at least 20% of total broadcasting time on each channel to a socially relevant program. The Ram Vilas Paswan Committee was set up to look over the Prasar Bharti Act in 1995. The Nitish Sengupta Committee (1996) was constituted in 1996 to have another look at the Prasar Bharti Act.
  1. The Broadcasting Bill (1997):- in middle of the May 1997 the Broadcasting Bill was introduced in parliament. A committee headed by Mr. Sharad Pawar was constituted to have a second look on the controversial clauses such as cross-media ownership, licensing procedure, extent of foreign equity to be permitted.

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