International news agency

International news agency

  1. Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency founded by Paul Julius Reuters. It was established in 1851. It was owned by Thomson Corporation in 2008. Its headquarter is in London.


About Reuters:-

Reuters worked at a Book Publishing firm in Berlin. In 1851 he moved to London and established a news wire agency at London Royal Exchange. Reuters is listed in both the London and New York stock exchange.

Reuters receives 10% of its revenue from the subscribers and rests 90% from its financial services. Reuters employee some 2500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 location worldwide.

Reuters merged with Thomson Organisation in 2008 and became Thomson Reuters.

  1. Associated Press

It is a non for profit agency founded on May 22, 1846. Its headquarter is in New York. Its members are U.S newspapers and broadcasters. Its has received 53 Pulitzer Prize. It received 2019 Pulitzer Prize for international reporting for coverage of the Civil War in Yemen.


AP produced content in English, Spanish, and Arabic. AP operates 263 News Bureues in 106 countries. It also operates AP radio Network. It uses inverted pyramid formula for making news.


About AP:-

It was formed in 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York, The Sun, New York Herald, New York Courier & Enquirer,The Journal of Commerce, and New York Evening Express.

In 2011, AP expanded its fact checking web presence to twitter.

AP has Sports Awards in:-




In 1994, APTV ( associated press television) was founded to provide news to TV broadcasters. In 1998, AP purchased WTN ( worldwide t.v news) from the ABC news division of the Walt Disney Company, Nine Network Australia and ITN London. It was the first news agency to launch a live video service in 2003.

Controversies and Ligitation:-

  • Christopher Newton
  • FBI Impersonation Case
  • Fair use Controversies
  • Copyright & Intellectual Property
  • Shepard Fairey
  • Hot News
  • Illegal Immigrant
  • Hoax Tweet & Flash Crash
  • Justice Department Subpoena of Phone records
  • Claims 0f Biased reporting
  1. Agence France Press

AFP is the world’s oldest news is an International news agency founded in 1835 as Agence Havas. Its headquarter is in Paris, France.


Its regional headquarters are in Nicosia, Montevideo, Hong Kong, and Washington DC and News Bureaux.

About AFP:-

AFP was founded as Agence Havas in 1835 in Paris by Charles- Louis Havas.two Havas employees Pal Julius Reuters and Bernhard Wolf set up their own news agency in London and Berlin.

In 1991, AFP set up joint venture with Extel to create financial news services AFX news. It was sold in 2006 to Thomson Financial.

News Agencies in India

News Agencies in India

An Indian Journalist K.C Roy set up the first Indian News Agency called Press Information Bureau (PNB) in 1919. S. Sadanand established a nationalistic news agency called Free Press of India (FPI) in 1930 that could not run more than a year. In 1933, the UPI came out from FPI and proved to be a great success. Until independence, Reuters and UPI were the main sources of news.

By1949, Indian and Eastern News agency had started its own agency called The Press Trust of India (PTI). This was the time we called a setup of Indian News agency run properly till now and all we have many more apart from this.

  1. Press Trust of India (PTI)- press trust of India also known as PTI is the largest news agency of India. It was founded on 27th August 1947. Its headquarters is in New Delhi. Its present Chairman is Vijay Kumar Chopra. PTI has expended its services and has Foreign correspondents in New York, Moscow, Kathmandu, Colombo, London, and many other countries as well. It has other news agencies with whom it shares its information such as Reuters, AFP. It has relation with other agencies for sharing news like, AP for international photographs, and AP-Dow Jones for international economic and financial news. PTI has teamed with AAP(information service of Australia), Nihon Keizai Shimbun of Japan, Antara news agency of Indonesia, and YONHAP of South Korea.


Major Indian subscribers of PTI are The Hindu, Times of India, Indian Express, Hindustan Times, The Statesman, The Tribune, The All India Radio, Doordarshan. Press Trust of India is the only news agency in Asia which has its own communication Satellite an INSAT.  PTI has its offices in Dubai, Colombo, Bejing, Bangkok, Washington DC, New York, Moscow, Islamabad, and Kualalampur. PTI –Bhasha is the Hindi news service unit of PTI.

1905 Birth of API (Associated Press of India), by K.C Roy, First Indian news agency.
1919 Reuters takes over operation of API.
1953 PTI became free agent, independent of Reuters.
1976 PTI,UNI,Samachar Bharti and Hindustan Samachar merged under pressure during emergency.
1986 PTI-TV launched
1986 PTI-Bhasha launched, making it bi-lingual.
  1. United News of India (UNI)- United News of India was founded on 19th December 1959 as an English news agency. It is a multilingual news agency set up by Dr. B.C Roy. Its commercial operation was started on 21st March 1961. Its headquater is in New Delhi. Univerta is UNI Hindi unit. UNI started its Urdu service in 1992. Its present chairman is Vishvas Tripathi.


UNI offers various services to ith thousands of subscribers in India and 30 abroad, include UNIFIN, finance and banking service,UNISTOCK, a service for stock exchange, and UNISCAN, a news service fed directly into television sets. UNI is the first agency to start first multilingual news agency called UNIVERTA on 1st May 1982.

  1. Hindi News Agency
  • PTI -Bhasha, and UNIVARTA are the Hindi units of the two national news agencies called PTI and UNI.
  • Hindustan Samachar India’s first multilingual news agency was founded by S.S Apte in 1948.
  • Samachar bharti began in 1967 supported by government of Bihar.Gujrat,Rajasthan and Karnatka. Jayprakash Narayan was its first chairma.

Media Organization

PCI,First Press Council, & Second Press Council

  1. Press Council of India:-

    the press council is a statutory body and autonomous body which formulates guidelines and code of conduct for the press which is followed by members of the press voluntarily. It has the power of the Civil Court. The first press council was initiated by Sweden.

 The Press Council of India was first set up in the year 1966 by the Parliament on the recommendations of the First Press Commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of press in India. The present Council functions under the Press Council Act, 1978. It is a statutory, quasi-judicial authority functioning as a watchdog of the press, for the press and by the press. It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.

press council of india

In India, it first initiated on November 1966 to 1st January 1976, under the press council Act 1965. It had been wound due to the emergency regime. It reconstituted in 1979, under the new press council Act 1978. J.R Mudholkar was the first chairman of  PCI.

The council has a Chairman-traditionally a retired supreme court judge, and 28 additional members of which 20 are members of media, nominated by newspapers, T.V channels and other outlets operating in India. In 28 members of the council 5 are the members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha of Indian Parliament. The term of members and chairman of the press council has 3 years. Retiring member is eligible for re-nomination but not more than one year.

The press council of India accepts complaints against and by the press matters related to journalist or media organization’s ethical failure. The press council can investigate and issue a report, it also abolished, warn and censored those finds at fault but do not have power do put penalty or enforce any individual journalist or organization. The proceedings of the press council should be taken place with regard to the judicial hearing under Section  193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code. On 21st July 2006 press council censored three newspaper – Times of India ( Delhi & Pune), Mid Day ( Mumbai), and Punjab Kesari ( Delhi).


  1. First press commission:-

    the first press commission of India was formed under the chairmanship of G.S Rajadhyaksha on 23rd September 1952 by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. There were 11 working group members in The first press commission and few members are as follows-

  • CP Ramaswami Aiyar
  • Zakir Hussain
  • VKRV Rao
  • PH Patwardhan
  • Natrajan
  • Chalapathi Rau

First press commission submitted its report in 1954 in two parts. Part I -constitutes a massive report and recommendations. Part ii– a detailed study of the history and development of Journalism in India. It was researched and written up by J.Natrajan, the editor of the Tribune and also a member of the committee.

Recommendations of the press Commission:-

  • The important recommendation of the commission was the setting up of a statutory press commission at the national level.
  • To protect the freedom of the press and high standards of the journalism, a Press council should be established.

Note- the press council of India was established on July 4th, 1966 which started functioning from November 16 ( on this date, National Press Day is celebrated) 1966.

  • Establishment of Registrar of Newspaper for India. It was appointed in 1956.
  • Price page schedule should be introduced. It was accepted in 1956.
  • A press consultative committee should be constituted for maintaining the cordial relationship between the government and the press. It was accepted on 22nd September 1962.
  • Working journalist Act should be implemented.
  • For protecting the main principles of the freedom of press and to help the newspapers against monopolistic tendencies, a newspaper financial corporation should be constituted. It was accepted on 4th December 1970.
  1. Second press commission:-

    it was set up in 29th May 1978. To begin with Justice P.K Goswamichaired the commission. The second press commission was re-announced on January 1980 and reorganized in April 1980. It submitted its report on April 1982. The new chairman was Justice K.K Matthew.

The main recommendations are:-

  • An attempt should be made to establish a cordial relation between the government and the press.
  • For the development of small and medium newspaper, there should be the establishment of a newspaper development commission.
  • Newspaper industries should be separated from industries and commercial interest.
  • There should be the appointment of board of trustees between editors and proprieties of the newspaper.
  • Price and page schedule should be introduced.
  • There should be fixed proportion of news and advertisements in small, medium and big newspaper.
  • Newspaper industries should be relieved from the impact of foreign capital.
  • No predictions should be published in newspapers and magazines.
  • The misuse of the image of advertisements should be discontinued.


Famous Dailies (News Papers) in India and their Editor-in-Chiefs  

Famous Dailies (News Papers) in India and their Editor-in-Chiefs


Newspaper/Journal Chief Editor

The Hindu




The Times of India


Jaideep Bose


Indian Express


Shekhar Gupta


The New Indian Express


Prabhu Chawla


Hindustan Times

Sanjoy Narayan

India Today


Aroon Purie




Krishna Prasad




Swaminathan Gurumurthy  




Shashi Shekhar


Dainik Jagaran

Sanjay Gupta
Dainik Bhaskar  

Kalpesh Yagnik


The Tribune


Rajesh Ramchandran


The Economics Times


Bodhisatva Ganguli




Cherukuri Ramoji Rao


Business Standards


Shyamal Majumdar


The Financial Express


Raj Kamal Jha


Business Line


Raghavan Srinivasan

Newspaper or Journal Founder

Newspaper or Journal Founder

newspaper founder

Newspaper/Journal Founder
Al –Hilal (Daily)

Al –Balagh (weekly)


Abul Kalam Azad
New India


Annie Besant


B.B. Upadhyaya

Bahishkrit Bharat…

Dr. B.R Ambedkar


Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Balshastri Jambhekar
Kavi Vachan Sudha Bhartendu Harishchandra

Jugantar Bhupendranath Data and Barindra Kumar Ghosh

New India (Weekly)

Bipin Chandra Pal
Bande Mataram

Sri Aurobindo
Talvar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya

Rast Goftar

Dadabhai Naoroji and Kharshedji Cama
Voice of India Dadabhai Naoroji
Indian Mirror Devendra Nath Tagore

The Tribune Dyal Singh Majithia

Bombay Chronicle Sir Pherozeshah Mehta

The Hindu &


G. Subramania Iyer
Sudharak Gopal

Ganesh Agarkar

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
Inquilab Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah

Hindoo Patriot Girish Chandra Ghosh & Harish Chandra Mukherjee

Somprakash Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan

Bengal Gazette

James Augustus Hicky
Hindustan Times

Sunder Singh Lyallpuri

Vichar Lahiri

Krishnashastri Chiplunkar
Arya Gazette Lala Lajpat Rai
Induprakash Gopal Hari Deshmukh
The Leader &


Madan Mohan Malaviya

 Indian Opinion,

Young India,


Mahatma Gandhi

Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate
The Comrade

Maulana Mohammad Ali
The Independent (India) Motilal Nehru…

Din Mitra Mukundarao Patil

Din Bandu

Bhaskar Rao Jadhav
Navyug Muzaffar Ahmed

Kudi Arasu

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
Sambad Kaumudi &


Ram Mohan Roy
The Statesman

Robert Knight
Bombay Times

Robert Knight & Thomas Bennnet

The Indian Sociologist Krishnavarma


Syed Ahmad Khan…

Amrita Bazar Patrika Sisir Kumar Ghose and Moti Lal Ghosh

Prabuddha Bharata &


Swami Vivekananda
Free Hindustan Tarak Nath Das

Native Opinion V.N. Mandlik


Books, Authors and Concepts

Books, Authors and Concepts by different Media Professionals



Alvin Toffler Future Shock

The Third Wave

Power Shift

Daniel Bell The Post-industrial Society
John Naisbitt Megatrends
Jacob Bronowski Ascent of Man
Marshall Mcluhan The Medium is the Message
Manual Castells The Information Age

Network Society

William Stephenson Play Theory
E.M Rogers Father of Popular Journalism
Robert Merton Middle Range Theory
William Randolph Hurst

& Joseph Pulitzer

Yellow Journalism
Nora C. Quebral,

Daniel Lerner,

Wilbur Schramm,

Everett Rogers

Development Communication
De Fleur &

Ball Rokeach

Media Dependancy
Patternson &

Mc Clure

Political Socialization
C.R Write Functional Analysis
Alan Chalkley Development Journalism
Robert Merton Structural Functionalist
Herbert Spencer Laissez- Fair in Evolutionary Perspective
C.H Colley Symbolic Interactionism


Social Conflict
Willbur Schramm Frames of reference
Antonio Gramsci Coercion & Consent
Donald & Maxwell


George Gerbner Resonance
Stuart Hall Circuit of Culture
Rabindra Nath Tagore Chitra
Sarat Chandra Chatterjee Devdas
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Durgesh Nandini
Tara Shankar Bandopadhyay Gandevta
B.H Westley &


A conceptual model of communication research
D.J Tichenor,

G.A Donohue,

C.N Olieu

Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge
Claud & Weaver The mathematical theory of communication
Harold Lasswell The structural & Function of communication in society
John Fiske Semiotic Power
Herbert Schiller Corporatisation of Culture
John B. Thompson Social theory of media
Greg Philo Audience perception of reality
John Kean The media and Democracy
Louis Guttman Cumulative Scale
Frank Moraes A witness to an Era
Franz Kafka The Judgment
Ramchandra Guha India after Gandhi
S.Singh Ink in my VeinsS
William Latane Social Loafing Theory
W.W Rostow Growth theory
Herbert Spencer Evolutionary perspective
Bernard Berelson Content Analysis
Kurt Lewin Action Research
K. Rama Rao Pen is my Sword
George A. Miller Information processing theory
Johann Galtung Structural Violence
Erving Goffman Frame analysis
Baxter & Babbie The Basics of communication research
Baran & Davis Mass communication theory: foundation, ferment,& future
Little John Theories of Human communication
Wimmer & Dominick Mass media research: an introduction
Robert J. Lavidge & Grey A. Steiner Effect model
Tavleen Singh Durbar
John Fiske Semiotic Power
Herbert Schiller Corporatisation of Culture
John B. Thompson Social theory of media
Grey Philo Audience perception of reality
John Fiske Book, Television, Culture
Julia Cage Saving the media
William Hachten Cultural Imperialism
Jan Servaes Multiplicity of paradigm
David Mc Clelland The Achieving Society
E.F Schumacher Small is beautiful
Everett Hagan Theory of social change




images (3)

Printing Process



1.       Letterpress Printing Process Johann Gutenberg 1440
2.       Offset Printing Process Allois Senefelder 1796
3. Rotary Printing Process Richard MarchHoe 1843
4. Linotype Printing Process Ottmar Mergenthaler 1884
5.       Gravure Printing Process Karl Kleitsch 1879
6.       Flexography Printing Process C.A Howles 1908
7.       Silk Screen Printing Process Samuel Simson 1907



  • Printing technology came to India in 1556.
  • 1st movable type printing was invented by Bi Sheng.
  • Paper invented by Ts’ai’Lun.
  • The first printing press was established in Bombay in 1674.
  • Second printing press established in Madras in 1772.
  • Third established in Calcutta in 1779.

Print Media Terminologies

Print Media Terminologies


AIR (Average Issue Readership)

AIR of any publication is the number of people who claim to have read the publication within a time period equal to the periodicity of the publication preceding the day of interview.

Frequency of Issue




Read in the last 3 months


Read in the last 2 months


Read in the last 4 weeks


Read in the last 15 days


Read in the last 7 days


Read in the last 3 days
Sunday Issue


Read in last 7 days


Read Yesterday

It is also defined as the readers of an average issue of a publication i.e. the estimated number of those who have read or looked at any issue of the publication within a specified time interval, which is equal to the periodicity of the publication (excluding the day of the interview).

Audited Circulation

The circulation that has been verified, usually by an independent company. The auditing company should be nationally or internationally recognized, and the audit period must be as up to date as possible. In India, print readership is verified by the ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation).

Average Net Paid Circulation

Refers to the number of periodicals sold over a period of time divided by the a number of issues published.

ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation)

An organization with publishers, advertisers, and advertising agencies as its members, formed for the purpose of certifying circulation figures of its member magazines and newspapers, which have been audited by recognized professional accounting firms. Reports are released once in six months.


Paid for advertising produced in the editorial style of the magazine or newspaper in which it appears on the proviso that it is clearly entitled to “Advertisement” or“Promotion”.

Bleed Ad

Refers to an advertisement that runs till the edge of the page and leaves no margin.


The number of copies sold or distributed by a publication (usually in a specified geographical area) and certified by an audit firm.

CC (Column Centimeter)

This is a unit of measurement in a publication by which advertising space is sold, measuring 1 cm deep by 1 column wide (normally 4.5cms). Generally, there are 8 columns of 4.5cms each on any page of a newspaper. The formula used is: Column Centimeter = Number of Columns * Height in Centimeters.


The percentage of a publication’s readers who fall into a given target group: for example, 66% of “The Times” readers are in top senior management. It is also called Profile.

Cumulative Readership

The net reaches achieved by a number of insertions of an advertisement in a single title or schedule. This is the number of people who have at least one opportunity to see (OTS) an advertisement. It is important because additional insertions in some titles will improve coverage more than additional insertions in others.

Double Spread (DS) Page

A single advertisement carried across two facing pages of a publication.

Duplication of Readership (between publications)

The proportion of average issue readers of one publication who are also average issue readers of another publication. (The base for duplication is average issue readership and not claimed/ total readership).

Display Advertising

Print advertising that is intended to attract attention and communicate easily through the use of space, illustrations, layout, headline and so on.

Drip Strategy

Advertising messages are delivered to consumers in drips over an extended period.

Effective Frequency

The minimum level of exposure to an advertisement that is likely to produce a positive change in awareness, attitude, or purchasing behavior.

Effective Reach

The reach of a medium or media schedule at a predetermined level of frequency (as opposed to total reach). Usually computed at 1+, 3+, 5+ level of AOTS. (E.g. 45% reach at 3+ AOTS)


The introduction of an advertisement to the target audience. It is generally expressed as an opportunity to see (OTS).

Folder Test

A research technique to assess people’s responses to print advertisements. A selection of advertisements placed in a folder is given to respondents and reactions are analyzed.


The periodicity of a publication is referred to as frequency for e.g. Daily, Weekly, Monthly, etc.


The crease (or white space) between two opposite pages of a newspaper or magazine.

Gross Coverage

Another name for Gross Reach or Gross Penetration.

Gross Impressions

Usually expressed in absolutes. Expressed as Number of people reached multiplied by Number of times reached.

Gross Reach

GI= Reach in 000s X AOTS Sum total of all exposures to the ads in a schedule. Or the sum total of the opportunities to see insertions in each publication. This is a duplicated number.


An estimate of the number of actual exposures to advertisements

Incremental Reach

Incremental Reach is the positive change in the reach number, resulting from the addition of insertion in a publication or the addition of a publication.

INS (Indian Newspapers Society)

Indian Newspaper Society was founded in 1939 with an objective of acting as a central organization in Press, and to collect all information of interests to it members. Another important function of this body is to promote co-operation amongst its members.


This refers to an advertisement in a print medium.

IRS (Indian Readership Survey)

IRS is the largest continuous readership research study in the world with an annual sample size exceeding 2.5 lakh respondents. In addition to the readership of newspapers and magazines IRS also measures other media consumption namely, television viewing, radio listening, cinema attendance, and internet usage.

IRS collects a comprehensive range of demographic information and provides extensive coverage of consumer and product categories, including cars, household appliances, household durables, household care, and personal care products, food, and beverages, etc… IRS also provides in-depth understanding of media behavior through its expanded media measures such as time spent using different media and frequency of media usage).

Last Issue Readership

Estimated number of people who claimed to have read or looked at any issue of a publication during its Last Issue Period. It is almost always synonymous with Average Issue Readership.


This refers to the section of the publication, which denotes the name of the publication, usually the top section of the front page.


Percentage of a publication’s readers who claimed to have read or looked at a specific editorial item, advertisement, type of ad, etc.

Net Reach

The unduplicated number of target individuals or households exposed to a media schedule at least once (also referred to as reach) is the net reach.

Pass-on Readership or Pass along Readership

Readers of an issue of a publication that was not bought by them or a member of their household. E.g. at a dentist’s waiting room or a barber’s shop. It is also known as Secondary Readers or Tertiary Readers.

Print Order (Run)

The number of copies printed (but not necessarily sold or distributed) by a the publication is referred to as a Print Order (Run).

RPC (Readers Per Copy)

The average number of persons likely to be exposed to an average issue of a the publication is referred to as Readers Per Copy. Readers Per Copy = Readership / Circulation or Print Order


The average number of persons who are likely to be exposed to one issue of a publication is the readership of that publication. This is ascertained through a scientifically designed random sample survey, such as IRS.

Readership is defined in two ways:

  1. Total Readership
  2. Average Issue Readership

Unless otherwise specified, readership refers to average issue readership.

  • Sole Readership

Overall for a publication is the estimated number of individuals who read only that particular publication and no other publications.

  • Sole Readership – Language

The number of people who are readers of a publication of any language but do not read any other publication in that language. e.g. Sole Readership of an English Publication refers to the estimated number of readers of the English publication who read only that publication in the English language.

  • Sole Readership – Periodicity

The number of people who are readers of a publication of any periodicity but do not read any other publication in that periodicity. e.g. Sole Readership of a monthly refers to the estimated number of readers of the monthly who read only that monthly across monthlies of all the languages.

Split Run

A facility offered by publications to advertisers, that allows different advertising copies to be run in different parts of the circulation area.


Refers to the sections added to the main body of a newspaper and distributed free of cost at a regular frequency.

Sq. Cms (Square Centimeter)

Refers to the height of the ad in centimeters * width of an ad in centimeters. E.g. Frontpage ad can be 20cms x 12cms = 240 sq cms (approximately equal to 60cms x 4 column centimeters). Some daily newspapers have recently changed their format to 7-column width (against 8 columns earlier) in line with some international formats. Consequently, the ad sales units have been changed to square centimeters.


The act of deciding how a media plan should be phased and eventually appear in media at a given period of time is called scheduling.


Refers to a newspaper smaller in size as compared to the broadsheet newspaper. E.g Mid-Day, Mumbai Mirror, etc.

Tear Sheet

Refers to the page clipped from a newspaper or magazine as proof that an ad has appeared as scheduled. An invoice to seek payment normally accompanies it.

Total / Claimed Readership

“ It is an aided recall of readership of any publication enlisted in the survey during the predefined period that varies by periodicity of the publication and it excludes the readership recall corresponding to the day of interview. ”

By readership we mean it is “read or looked at”, it is not only careful reading but it could also be glancing through the pages. Just seeing the cover does not mean, “looking at”. However, for dailies even seeing the cover page would be considered as “looking at” provided the daily is taken in the hand and some time is spent on it. It does not matter where it may have been looked at, for e.g. in a train or in a doctor’s clinic or at a hairdresser’s / barber’s shop, in an office or a library or at a friend’s place or even borrowed.

Publication Periodicity


Predefined Period
Quarterlies In the last 1 year


Bi-monthlies In last year




In the last 6 months
Fortnightlies In the last 3 months




In an average month


In an average month
Five-day dailies In an average week


Six-day dailies


In an average week
Dailies In an average we


Voucher Copy

A free copy of a publication sent to the advertiser as proof that a paid-for the advertisement had appeared.

Volume Discount

Discount incentives for advertisers who commit to a specified level of spend with a media owner or agency.

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