Types of Propaganda
Propaganda is a form of communication design to influence people thinking and actions or influence the attitudes of communities towards the desired action. Propaganda is a way of communication which used to influence people opinion with regards to a particular object, subjects, cause or any issue.
The word propaganda is often used for politicians in a very negative sense. The technique of the propaganda often rest upon the partial fact and make sentimentally charged messages to target the group of people. These kinds of technique make people think emotionally rather rational towards any issue or object. Propaganda has different techniques that can be used to influence people in a certain way.
We can understand the concept with a few examples but for that, we must understand the different techniques of using propaganda to influence the public.
- Glittering Generalties
- Name Calling
- Plain Folk
- Loaded Words
- False Dilemma
These techniques have been used much time in the past. They used to be seen mostly in politics and communication given by the Government authorities or Elite classes who wanted people to perceive.
- The Indian Revolt of 1857
One of the glaring examples of British propaganda can be seen in the Indian Revolt of 1857, or the Sepoy Mutiny, as it was called by the British. The British media, in order to garner public opinion in favor of its continued rule in India, reported instances of many British women and children being raped by Indian rebels. There was little evidence to support this theory, as was later proved, but the accounts in the media, false though they were, helped in justifying the continued oppression of the Indians, by painting the natives as savages and barbarians, who needed ‘civilizing’ by the European colonials(Tilottama Chatterjee,marketingWit) .
- The Afghan War
Another, more recent example was the war in Afghanistan, where American strategy involved invoking sympathy of the Afghans by stressing the nefarious aspects of The Taliban and portraying Americans as ‘friends’. This was mainly done in order to garner public support and opinion, in an effort to overthrow the Taliban government and gain a foothold in its stronghold. It involved the dropping of thousands of leaflets across Afghanistan, offering rewards for the capture of the Al Quaeda chief Osama bin Laden, and promising American support and aid. Propaganda is viewed as an exceedingly important tool, and defense strategies and tactics use it extensively in their operations within enemy and home territory, with modifications, depending on the outcome they hope to achieve. The United States Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) has divisions within the army, navy and air force, their primary objective is to bring about behavior favorable to US aims and objectives. These PSYOPS units used it along with other strategies and tactics to achieve this goal, as was the case in the Afghan war – sowing the seeds of discontent among the locals to garner sympathy and further the American cause(Tilottama Chatterjee,marketingWit).
Types of Propaganda
- White Propaganda:- white propaganda does not hide its real origin or nature. It s a type of propaganda where the real author of particular information is clear and the purpose of that information is also distinct or transparent. Because of the author’s accountability towards its public, is suggested that white propaganda is often based on the facts. Although the whole truth often not told, it is not intentionally deceptive. Jacques Ellul a French philosopher in one of his major books talk about the White Propaganda, Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes.
- Black Propaganda:- it is a form of information that is spread by one source and is produced to look as if it has come from another source. It is convincing enough to be accepted as something other than what it really is. It is recognized to be fake. This propaganda requiring great knowledge and cultural understanding of the source which it is mimicking.
- Grey propaganda:- it is a type of propaganda where the correct source is never directly credited and the sponsor’s identity is concealed. Defined by its lack of clear source, the information contained in grey propaganda doe not mean have to be inaccurate. It could be true or false. The common practice of grey propaganda is to circulate an article in a publication without detailing source.
Techniques of propaganda
- Bandwagon:- this technique involves influence people to think or act in the same way because others are doing so. It tells everyone how everyone is using the same product to the same ideology. This technique is often seen during election. People give vote to those candidates whom the majority seems to be supporting.
- Card stalking:- it is one of the seven techniques identified by the IPA or Institute Of Propaganda Analysis. Card stalking mainly used in advertising by highlighting the positive fact about the product and avoid negatives of the product. This usually uses in drugs and food advertisements effectively. It is a half-truth. It involves only presenting information that is positive to an idea.
- Name Calling:- The technique used is such that it causes an audience to create a negative opinion about someone because of the bad opinions they hear of them. Used by politicians and product companies.
4. Plain Folks:- this technique does its work in a way that the speaker and its audience have same views and opinions about something. It creates a sense of relationship between speaker and his/her audience which helps build belief in the idea.
- Testimonial:- when a famous celebrity advertises certain views, they testified the ideas or the product. This is an effective technique to influence target audience in a particular way. When a celebrity endorses a certain view, it is more than likely that fans and followers endorse the same view.
- Transfer:- this technique involves making an illogical association between one thing and something else that is generally viewed as positive or negative. E.g. the American pioneers worked hard because they cared about the future. If you care about your family future then see your agent at Pioneer Insurance.
- Loaded words:- this technique involves using words with strong positive or negative connotations or associations. It uses words that are charged with emotions.
Source:- manali Oak,marketingwit, https://marketingwit.com/types-of-propaganda-techniques