Patterns of Communication

Patterns of Communication

Communication patterns are such structures in which communication will flow in an organization. We can understand it as a link which helps organizational workers to communicate according to these patterns structured by a particular organization. These communication patterns are responsible for work efficiency and who answerable to whom. It also helps in the decision making the process.

Communication patterns were developed by Harold J. Leavitt in 1950. It is also known as Leavitt experiment, where the experiment included 5 people who had to play a game similar to clue.

Here, every person had five symbols with them and had to find out which symbol they had in common. If all the information could be gathered, the puzzle could be solved. Five people were placed in cubicles with slots 6 switches to exchange information.

The cubicles were placed in different shapes: star (wheel), Y, chain (line) and circle. People had slots in which they could write messages and send according to these patterns.

It was done to find out which pattern could be better to communicate effectively and quickly (businesstopia, by Palistha Maharajan ).

Types of Communication Patterns:-

  1. Circle Pattern- in circle pattern there is a leader and all group member are in a hierarchy. The leader can communicate with the group member who presents net to him/her. The leader can not talk to the members who are lowest in the hierarchy.

circle pattern

All group members can communicate with the leader through the members who present above and below that person. The message flows in a single direction. It is not possible for the group members to communicate directly with the leader in circle communication pattern which is also a disadvantage of this pattern. They can only communicate with the leader through other group members senior to them.

  1. Chain patternchain pattern appears like a circle pattern it also follows few chains of command. In this pattern last person receives the message from the leader. It is a one-way flow communication.

chain-pattern (1)

In chain communication all members did not get the opportunity to talk to the leader directly so they might receive modified lecture of the leader. Thre is no feedback to identify message distortion. A leader does not know wheather last member receives the message or not.

  1. Y Pattern – the group is separated into three and the group members can communicate with the leader only. This pattern is little complicated as three different groups are situated into one single group. According to Levitt these three groups are controlled by a single leader. There are three members in each subgroup.


There is a chain of command in the subgroup. The lowest level member of each subgroup communicates with the members senior to them. Members communicate with their senior member of each group and that senior member communicate to the leader directly.

  1. Wheel pattern- in this pattern team leader stands in the middle and all other members stand at the same level of the structure. This pattern is one of the best patterns while comparing to the other three. Here all member can communicate with the leader directly. One disadvantage of this group is members can not talk to each other and sometimes it happened other members even do not know who is the other member presents at his/her same level.


Communication problems are less in this pattern and method is really quick. No distortion of information by other members of the group while passing the message.

Source:- palistha Maharjan, 9th January 2018, businesstopia.



 Johari window was created by an American psychologist Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham in 1955. It is primarily used in self- help as a heuristic exercise. Luft and Ingham gave name to this model Johari using a combination of their first initials. This model helps people to better understand themselves. This model is also known as Feedback or Disclosure model of Self- Awareness.


This is an exercise of self-help where a person selects a number of adjectives from a list that describe his or her personality and that person’s peers get a chance to select a number of adjectives from the list that describes the subject (person). These adjectives are then inserted into the grid of four cells.

The philosopher Charles Handy called this concept of Johari Window the Johari House with four rooms.

  • The four quadrants:-

  1.  Open/ self area– this includes things that we know about ourselves and others have known about us. In this cell, a person’s behavior, attitude,skills, nature, etc. known by the person as well as others.this is the cell where all communications occur and more feedback is possible as the size of the open area increases more and effective interaction will take place.
  2. Blind area– this cell includes things others know about us that we do not know. In this way information about you is known by others but not you.
  3. Hidden area– things we know about ourselves that others do not know. This can be any personal information that you do not want to share with others and want to keep things aside. This includes past experience, emotions, fears, scared of something, etc. some of our feelings and emotions are private so this makes are relationships little effective with others. To keep that thing narrow we should move from Hidden to open space.
  4. Unknown area– things neither we nor others know about us. This could be un-discovered talent. This can happen as our past experience were not so good that made us on this track where we avoid to discover ourselves at any point of life. For that reason open area could be a better option as it is effective to decreases the size of the unknown area.
  • This model based on two ideas-

  1. Trust can be obtained by revealing information about you to others.
  2. Learning yourselves from their feedback.
  • Example-

Roma got a job in an organization. her co-workers do not know about her. So, in this case, Hidden and Un-known area must increases as it contains secrets and undiscovered talent.


Media literacy

Media literacy

The U.S based National Association for Media Literacy Education defined Media Literacy as the ability to Access, Analyze, Evaluate, Create, and Act using all forms of communication. media literacy education is a part of the US and some European Countries curriculum.

Like traditional literacy, media literacy involves critical thinking, analytical skills, and the ability to express oneself in different ways. Being media literate also entails using media wisely and effectively, including being able to judge the credibility of information from different sources. A media literate student will be aware of the media’s influence on beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, and the democratic process. And in the same way that traditional literacy includes writing as well as reading skills, media literacy also emphasizes producing effective communication through a variety of different media forms.

ML Process

Media literacy education often uses an inquiry-based pedagogical model that encourages people to ask questions about what they watch, hear, and read.

Theoretical approaches-

  1. Renee Hobbs:- he identified three forms for introducing media literacy to learners.
  • Authors and Audience (AA)
  • Messages & Meanings (MM)
  • Representation and reality (RR)
  1. David Buckingham:- he has four key concepts.
  • Production
  • Language
  • Representation
  • Audience
  1. Henry Jenkins:- He discussed the participatory culture, stress, and the significance of new media literacy.
  2. Dougles Kellner & Jeff share:- they categorized four different approaches for media literacy.
  • The Protectionist approach
  • Media arts education
  • Media literacy movement
  • Critical Media literacy

Media literacy education is actively focused on the instructional method and pedagogy of media literacy. Canada was the first country in North America to require Media Literacy in the school curriculum. Two of Canada’s leaders in media literacy and media education are Barry Duncan and John Pungenete. Media literacy has been started in the US in the 20th century.

Stanley Baran in the introduction to Mass Communication speaks about the term called ‘Third Person Effect’. Third-person effect confines that media consumer believes that media affects others but not ourselves.

Davison (1983) defines the third-person effect hypothesis as the likelihood that “individuals who are members of an audience that is exposed to a persuasive communication (whether or not this communication is intended to be persuasive) will expect the communication to have a greater effect on others than on themselves” ( communication Reseach Trends, vol.24(2005) no. 2)

There are seven media literacy Skills ( Baran)

  1. The ability and willingness to make an effort to understand the content, to pay attention and filter out noise.
  2. Having an understanding and respect for the power of media messages.
  3. Ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reactions when responding to content and act accordingly.
  4. Development of heightened expectations of media content.
  5. The knowledge of genre conventions and the recognition of their mixing.
  6. The ability to think critically about media messages.
  7. The knowledge of the internal language of various media and the ability to understand its effect.

John Pavlik and Shawn Mcintosh in their book converging media: A new introduction to Mass Communication. media literacy is important in mediated communication than non- mediated communication.


Pressbook, introduction to media studies.

Media Literacy,

Forms of Communication

Forms of Communication

  1.  Intrapersonal Communication:- when a person communicates with his own mind and develops functional ideas is called Intrapersonal Communication. this type of communication is a result of Cognition and external influences on this thinking. This communication can be an individual reflection, Contemplation, and meditation. Conversation with Divine, Spirit, and Ancestors may be termed as transpersonal communication.

intra personal

The Process of Intra-Personal Communication

2. Inter-Personal Communication (Dyadic Communication):- In this type of communication a person share his thoughts and ideas with another person. Both the person addressing each other in this communication that needs their much confidence to make their conversation effective and understandable. It is direct Face to Face Communication between two persons. It can be done in words and gestures. This communication is known as the perfect form of communication. it involves all the five senses. It involves common space and time. Interpersonal communication includes common space and time.


Buddhism talks about the Four Social Emotions of interpersonal communication mention below:- Metta ( Loving Kindness), Karuna (Compassion), Murdita (Sympathetic Joy), and Upekka ( Equanimity)

Interpersonal communication also includes Focused and Unfocused communication where the focus is about actual interaction between two person and unfocused interactions take place whenever we listen and observe people with whom we are not conversing.

 Three Stages of Interpersonal Communication:-

  •  The Phatic Stage – This is the Initial exploratory stage of communication. the first stage is known as the Phatic stage (Greek Phase, Utterance). It begins with a Hi! Or a Hello!. It is a warming up time. This is a stage where one person patterned his/her communication according to social and cultural norms. Example– hello ! how are you? I am fine. Thanks for coming. Have a nice day.

phatic stage

Personal Stage

  •  The Personal Stage – this is a second stage which introduces a more personal element into the conversation. Professional communication comes into this category. In this category of communication, we try to make ourselves more comfortable so that we can expose our feelings on some risk. Example– office meeting going to happen. People share their ideas and about their business or professional life during a meeting.

personal stage

Personal Stage

  • The Intimate Stage – this stage is reserved for our friends and families. Interpersonal communication at its highest peak in this stage where all our social barriers break down. This is a period where we get out our innermost thoughts and feelings in front of our known or close one. Example– hang out with friends. Love or pamper someone. Breaking the barriers for the important person.

intimate stage

Intimate Stage

3. Group Communication – In this kind of communication information flows from one group to another. This form of communication can be observed in both Business and Non- Business settings. Such groups may be formal or informal. Here the group is not only associated with business or non- business groups. Acting can be associated with this. Theater, Mela, Ram Lila, The Kumbh Mela, Folk Events, etc. come under this kind of communication. these groups can be in the form of Gossip, Tea, Or another kind of groups. These are often termed as Micro Groups whose interest and area of thoughts could be same. They share their stories, thoughts, and ideas into a small group of the same interest.

group communication

Group Communication

 4. Mass Communication – when a large group of people communicated through a medium (electronic, print, and social media) by a person or organization mass communication happens. This is an extended version of group communication. Books, Press, Cinema, Radio, Television, Video, Internet, are identified as mass communication media. Mass communication is a communication that takes place at a distance.

Daniel Lerner termed mass communication as a Mobility Multipliers and Wilbur Schramm Considered them to be Magic Multiplier.


Mass Communication

5. Mass-Line Communication- the Mass- Line is a political, organizational, and leadership method developed by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Chinese Revolution. The essential element of this communication is consulting the Masses. Mahatma Gandhi to employ this kind of communication. the essence of this communication was a personal example, respect for the peasant’s knowledge and non- manipulative information.


Mass-Line Communication



Types of communication

There are two types of communication:-

  1. Verbal
  2. Non-Verbal
  1. Verbal Communication:- verbal communication divided into two types first is Oral and second is Written.


  • Oral communication- the objective of this communication is to ensure that people understand whatever you want to say. It is an informal way of Communication. Oral communication has major elements such as- Pich, Volume, Speed, Clarity in speaking.

 Types of Oral Communication:-

  • Linguistic Communication:- communication by the use of sound or conventional symbol.
  • Auditory Communication:- this relies on hearing.
  • Orthoepy pronunciation:- the way a word or a language is spoken.
  • Conversation:- the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas.
  • Locution:- Saying or Expression
  • Idiolect:- a person’s unique way of speaking.
  • Monologue:- a long utterance by one person.
  • Dictation:- Speech intended for reproduction in writing.
  • Written Communication:- written communication means sanding of messages, instructions, the information in writing through letters, notice, bulletins, etc.


Types of written communication:-

  • Black & White- it means written communication by or between people in a group.
  • Folio, Leaf– A sheet of any written or printed material.
  • Transcription, Written Text– something written, copied from one to another. E.g dictation.
  • Correspondence communication– by the exchange of letters.
  • Code, Codification- A set of rules or laws (especially in written).

The writing process-

Gardner and Johnson (1997) describe the stages of the writing process.

  • Pre Writing
  • Rough Draft
  • Reread
  • Share with a Peer Reviser
  • Revise
  • Editing
  • Final draft
  • Publishing

2. Non- Verbal Communication:- it is an expression of feelings, emotions in a wordless manner. Forms include Gestures, Postures, Body language, Tone, or Voice and facial expression.



Types of Non- Verbal Communication:-

  • Vocalics (Para Language) – this is how people express their emotions through voice. The voice has different vocal properties such as tone, rate of speech, pitch, volume, inflection, being loud and soft. para language means along or parallel to the words and deals with the extra linguistics Yawning, Bleaching, nodding, etc.

long beard  brown hair man head expression isolated on white

  • Kinesics ( Body Language) – communication by body language. It interprets body movements communication such as Gestures, Postures and facial expression or any other movement of the body or its part.

body language

Concepts related to Kinesics are as follows:

Emblems– gestures or body movement directly translates into words or phrase.

Illustrators– reinforce words such as pointing down the road with a finger.

Regulators– control the pace and flow of communication.

Affect Display– show emotions.

Manipulators– release emotional or physical tension.

  • Oculesics (Eye language)- it is the study of eye movement, gaze, eye behavior or eye-related communication.


  • Haptics (Touch)- it is any form of interaction through touch. Recognizes objects by touch.


  • Clothing- clothing can communicates our occasion, festival, mood, appearance, etc.


  • Proxemics (Space)- it is a term used by Hall (1969) to indicate our use of space. He studied distancing behavior. He proposed four personal zones.


  1. Intimate Zone 0 to 45 cm. making love, wrestling, offering. He added the dimension of controlling aggression when a person is to wish to dominate others.
  2. Personal Zone 45 cm to 1.2 m. friendship zone.usualy not available to strangers. Touch is not usual but the distance is close enough to talk.
  3. Social Zone2 m to 3.7m. casual conversation or business.
  4. Public Zoneover 3.7 m. it opens for all to communicate.
  • Chronemics (time)- it is the study of the role of time in communication. it is the study of how time is used in communication.




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