In 1960, Russel Colley propounded a new concept regarding advertising. DAGMAR is an abbreviation for “Defining Advertising Goals to measure Advertising Results”. Colley has defined advertising as : a paid mass communication, the ultimate purpose of which is to impart information, develop attitude, and induce action beneficial to the advertiser, generally the sale of a product”.

DAGMAR is a marketing tool to compute the result of an advertising campaign. According to this approach, every purchase encounters four steps; Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, and Action. DAGMAR method is an established technique of creating effective advertising.


Functions of Advertising:-

  1. Registering the brand name.
  2. Reminding the brand name.
  3. Reinforcing the brand name.
  4. Creating brand differentiation.
  5. Creating brand preference.
  6. Creating brand loyalty.
  7. Creating a brand image.
  8. Rein forcing brand image.
  9. Changing a brand image.

Colley stated important features for obtaining objectives.

  • Advertising objectives muct be specific and measurable communication task.
  • Must specify the target audience.
  • Must specify desirable change against which results can be measured.
  • Must specify a time period for achieving goals.

Under DAGMAR Approach, communication objectives are based on hierarchy of effect model divide into four stages-


  • Awareness– it is the initial stage that aware people about the Brand Product. It is a fundamental task of the campaign to aware its consumer about the product. Awareness has to be created, developed, refined and maintained according to the characteristics of the market and the scenario of the organization at any given point of time.
  • Comprehension- at this stage consumer understand the benefits of the products. Example: In an attempt to persuade people to budge for a new toothpaste brand, it may be necessary to compare the product with other toothpaste brands, and provide an additional usage benefit, such as more effective than other toothpaste because it contains salt or that this particular toothpaste is a vegetarian toothpaste, which will, in turn, attract more customers.
  • Conviction- customer evaluates the different products and plan to buy a particular product. At this activity the job of Advertising is to mould the audience beliefs and persuade them to buy their product. Example: Thumbs up featured the incentive of social acceptance as “grown up”. It implied that those who preferred other soft drinks were kids.
  • Action- this is the last step of any advertising to tale people at this stage so that they can buy their product positively.





Ghanshyam Goyal (IIS officer) is the head of Bureau of Outreach Communication (BOC), an entity formed by merging of DFP, S&DD, and DAVP.

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had integrated its three departments — Directorate of Field Publicity (DFP), Song and Drama Division (S&DD) and Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP).

Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) is a nodal multimedia advertising agency of the government and a media unit of Information and Broadcasting. It serves to the need for Ministry or Departments of the Government, Public sectors, and autonomous bodies.

DAVP works to inform or educate people of the Urban and Rural about new policies, messages, government plans and also motivate them. Through different media it reaches to the general public. DAVP reaches to the public through modern and traditional means of communication such as Radio,Television, Print,Press Releases, Exhibitions outdoor advertising,etc. its expertise in the campaign throughout the country with the use of different media.

The origin of DAVP can be traced to the times of World War-II. Immediately after the outbreak of the Second World War, the erstwhile government of India appointed a Chief Press Advisor. Besides other things, advertising was also the responsibility of the Chief Press Advisor. A post of Advertising Consultant was created in June 1941 under the Chief Press Advisor. This is where DAVP has its roots.

On March 1, 1942, the Advertising Consultant Office became the Advertising Branch of the Department of Information & Broadcasting. Following the expansion in its scope, functions, and activities, this Advertising unit was declared an Attached Office of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting on October 1, 1955. The office also assumed the name of Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity(DAVP). DAVP was further declared as Head of a Department on April 4, 1959. By virtue of this declaration, financial and administrative powers were delegated to DAVP (davp.nic.in).

Role of DAVP

  1. To perform the functions of a multi-media advertising agency for the Central Government.
  2. To act as service agency for Central Government ministries/departments to meet their publicity needs including the production of media inputs as well as dissemination of messages/information.
  3. To help Central Government departments in formulating communication strategies/media plans and help implement them at the grass-root level by providing multi-media support

Channel of communication used are:-

  • Advertisements
  • Exhibitions
  • Out-door publicity
  • Printed publicity
  • Audio and visual publicity
  • Mailing of publicity material
  • Digital media publicity

The main set-up of DAVP at the headquarters consists of :

  1.  Campaign Wing – for coordinating publicity campaigns
  2. Advertising Wing – for release of press advertisement
  3. Outdoor Publicity Wing – for the display of outdoor publicity material
  4. Printed Publicity Wing – for the printing of publicity material
  5. Exhibition Wing – for putting-up exhibitions
  6. Mass Mailing Wing – for distribution of publicity material
  7. Audio-Visual Cell – for production of audio/video programs
  8. Studio with DTP facility – for designing
  9. Copy Wing – for making a copy
  10. Coordination Cell – for coordinating PQs, VIP ref., Parl.Committees
  11. Electronic Data Processing Centre – for processing of bills.
  12. Accounts Wing
  13. Administration Wing

Some of the important subjects publicized by DAVP include:-

  1. Health & Family Welfare
  2. Drug Abuse & Prohibition
  3. Women & Child Development
  4. Upliftment of Girl Child
  5. Education
  6. Adult Education
  7. Non-Conventional Energy Sources
  8. Mahila Samridhi Yojana
  9. National Integration & Communal Harmony
  10. Creating public opinion against dowry, female infanticide, child labor, beggary, etc.
  11. Blood Donation
  12. AIDS Awareness
  13. Consumer Protection
  14. Safe Drinking Water
  15. The welfare of the Handicapped
  16. Water-Borne Diseases
  17. Handicrafts
  18. Social Welfare Programmes
  19. Agriculture
  20. Food & Nutrition
  21. National Social Assistance Programmes
  22. TRYSEM
  23. IRDP
  24. DWCRA
  25. Employment Assurance Scheme
  26. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
  27. Panchayati Raj and
  28. Commemoration of 50 Years of India’s Independence

DAVP Network of Offices

  1. Regional office Banglore and Guwahati
  2. The regional distribution center at Calcutta and Chennai
  3. 35 field exhibition units
  4. Regional workshop at Chennai
  5. Distribution production center Guwahati

DAVP Headquaters


  1. DAVP DG Goyal appointed as head of BOC: Order Press Trust of India  |  New Delhi Last Updated on March 6, 2018 https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/davp-dg-goyal-appointed-as-head-of-boc-order-118030601296_1.html
  1. DAVP, http://www.davp.nic.in/

AIDA Model

 AIDA model was developed by an American businessman E.ST. Elmo Lewis in 1898. AIDA is an acronym stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, & Action. The main purpose of this model was making a connection between Seller and Buyer concerning products. The purpose was to increase or make sale calls. This model s often used in marketing that describes the steps taken by people throughout the process of buying product.


AIDA was a behavioral model that aims to make people aware of product stimulate interest, leads customers to desire and take them to the last stage of action. This model has been seen as more persuasive that often unconsciously affects our thinking (Butterfield, 1977).   According to the AIDA model, for making an advertisement to be effective it has to be one among all mention below:-

  • Command Action
  • Leads to Interest in the Product
  • Desire to own a Product
  • Leads to Action

For the success of any Advertisement, one has to design this in such a way so that consumer passes through all these steps mentioned above because all are equally important for any advertisement success. Advertisements must pass that message people can relate to and act in that way.

AIDA Approach:-

  1. Attract Attention:- product must attract the attention of the consumers. An Advertisement should be an eye-catcher.
  2. Interest:- some information such as Product details, Price, or Product availability have to be shown to create interest.
  3. Desire:– to make advertising desirable may approach celebrity in a particular commercial. The consumer gets more attached to that particulars ad in which their favorite celebrity or ideal have shown.
  4. Action:– as soon as Desire aroused, this must be transferred into action, must add something interesting that urges the customer to act now. There could be time availability, sale price or limited price that may lead people to action.

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